Cellular Anatomy, Integumentary And Musculoskeletal Systems - Part 3

csmoot85's version from 2015-06-05 13:37

Section 1

Question Answer
the main parts of the skeleton are divided into these partsaxial and appendicular
skull (cranium), zygomatic bone, maxilla mandible, clavicle, sacrum, coccyx, sternum, ribs, rib cartilage, and the vertebral column are contained in the ____axial skeleton
scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, and metatarsals are contained in the ____appendicular skeleton
skull, thorax, vertebral column are ____ skeleton bonesaxial
shoulder, upper extremities (arms, hands), hips, lower extremities (legs, feet) are ____ skeleton bonesappendicular
bones of the cranium, ears and face are ____ bonesskull
consist of 6 “immature” skull bones where ossification is not completefontanelles
8 bones form the ____cranium
14 bones form the ____face
6 tiny bones form the ____ear


Question Answer
the ____ bone forms the forehead and bony sockets that contain the eyesfrontal
the ____ bones form the rook and upper part of the side of the craniumparietal
the ____ bones form the lower sides and base of the craniumtemporal
the ____ joint is the area of connection between the temporal and mandibular bonestemporomandibular
the ____ process is a round process of the temporal bone behind the earmastoid
the ____ process projects downward from the temporal bonestyloid
a ____ is a projection on a bone for muscle attachmentprocess
the ____ bone forms the back and base of the skull and joins the parietal and temporal bonesoccipital
the ____ bone is a bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skullsphenoid
the ____ bone is a thin delicate cancellous bone that forms the nasal cavity and part of the orbits of the eyesethmoid


Question Answer
the ____ bones are small bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nosenasal
the ____ bones are upper jaw bones that help form the roof of the mouthmaxillary
the ____ bones are on each side of the face and form the high portion of the cheekszygomatics
the ____ bone is the lower jaw bonemandibular
the ____ bones are small bones that help form the eye sockets and the side wall of the nasal cavitylacrimal
the ____ bones form the back part of the roof of the mouth and the floor and side walls of the nosepalatine
the ____ forms the ledge along the inside of the side wall of the noseinferior concha
the ____ forms the lower, back part of the nasal septumvomer


Question Answer
the ____ is a hammer-shaped bone in the middle-ear cavitymalleus
the ____ is a anvil-shaped bone in the middle-ear cavityincus
the ____ is a stirrup-shaped bone in the middle-ear cavitystapes


Question Answer
the ____ is a bony cage composed of 12 pairs of ribs, the sternum (breastbone), and the thoracic vertebraethorax
the ____ ribs are attached to the sternum by costal cartilagetrue
the ____ ribs are attached to the cartilage of the seventh ribfalse
the ____ ribs have no frontal attachmentfloating


Question Answer
the ____ are the bones which form the spinal column and consist of 33 bone segments that protect the spinal cord from injuryvertebrae
the ____ contains 7 cervical bonesneck
the ____ contains 12 thoracic boneschest
the ____ contains 5 lumbar bonesback
the ____ contains 5 sacral bonespelvis
the ____ contains 4 coccyx bonestailbone
the vertebrae are hinged by ____amphiarthritic joints and intervertebral discs


Question Answer
the ____ make up the shoulder bones, also called shoulder girdle or pectoral girdlescapula and clavicle
the ____ is attached to the sternum at a very small joint called the sternoclavicular jointclavicle


Question Answer
humerusupper arm
ulnamedial lower-arm bone
radiuslateral lower-arm bone
olecranon processelbow (end of the ulna)
carpalseight wrist bones (two rows of four bones)
metacarpalsfive radiating bones to fingers
phalangesthree bones for each finger, two bones for each thumb


Question Answer
the pelvic girdle is also known as the ____hip bone
the ____ cavity contains the colon, rectum, bladder, reproductive organs and other soft organs in the abdominopelvic cavitypelvic
the ilium, ischium, and pubis bones form the ____pelvis
the ____ is the uppermost and largest portion of the pelvisilium
the ____ is the back portion of the pelvis (the part you sit on)ischium


Question Answer
the ____ is the thigh bone and the longest bone in the bodyfemur
the femur fits into a socket, the ____ in the hip boneacetabulum
the ____ is the kneecap, a small, flat bone formed in the tendons of the large muscle in front of the femurpatella
the ____ are the two lower-leg bonestibia (shin bone) and fibula
the ____ are seven short bones that form the ankletarsals
the largest tarsal is the ____, more commonly known as the heel bonecalcaneus
five metatarsals each lead to the ____ of the toesphalanges


Question Answer
places on a bone where muscles can attach are calledprojections and depressions (bone markings)
crests, condyle, tubercle, tuberosity, and trochanter are ____ bone markingsprojection
sinus, foramen, fissure, fossa, suture, and fontanelle are ____ bone markingsdepression
crestsrounded, sharp, narrow, or large ridges found on bones
condylerounded process at the end of a bone that forms an articulation or joining function
tuberclesmall, rounded elevation from a bone
tuberositylarger version of a tubercle
trochantera large projection
sinusbone cavity
foramenan opening for blood vessels and nerves to pass through
fissurea narrow slit between two bones
fossaa depression in a bone surface
suturethe line that joins immovable bones (such as skull bones)
fontanellea soft spot of skull bone that hasn’t ossified in infants
tuberosity and condyle____ are bone markings located on the upper arm bone
trochanter and tubercle____ are bone markings located on the thigh bone


Question Answer
osteomyelitisan infection of the bone and marrow that results in inflammation
necrosisoccurs when there is a reduction in the blood supply and it causes the death of tissue
sequestrumwhen dead tissue in the bone separates from the good bone
pott’s diseasea special form of tuberculosis that affects the vertebral column of children
osteoporosisdisease where the bone breaks down old tissue but does not manufacture enough new tissue to replace it, bones become soft and weak
osteomalacia or ricketssoft, easily bent, and deformed bones caused by a deficiency in vitamin D, develops primarily in infancy and early childhood
osteitis fibrosa cysticafibrous nodules and cysts form in the bones, causing bones to become porous and to lose calcium, results in deformed bones subject to fracture
hyperparathyroidismcondition which removes calcium from the bones
paget’s disease or osteo deformansoverproduction of bone, usually in the vertebrae, skull, and pelvis, results in enlarged and misshaped bones


Question Answer
osteomamost common benign tumor in the bone
exostosisbenign bone tumor, arises from the surface of a bone
osteochondromasusually found on the diaphysis of long bones near the epiphysial plate
osteogenic sarcomaa primary malignancy of the bone, generally affects the ends of long bones and is more common in young people, the knees is usually affected
ewing’s tumora malignant tumor that usually occurs at an early age (5-15 yo)


Question Answer
simple (closed) fracturethe bone is broken, but it doesn’t protrude through the skin, muscles and tissues aren’t damaged
compound (open) fracturethe bone comes through the skin and there’s considerable damage to the surrounding tissue
complete fracturethe bone is completely broken and the two broken ends are separated from each other
incomplete fracturethe break in the bone is more like a crack that doesn’t extend completely across
pathological fracturethe bone is broken because of bone disease rather than trauma
colles’ fracturethe bone is broken in the wrist at the lower end of the radius
comminuted fracturethe bone is splintered or crushed
greenstick fracturethe bone is partially broken and partially bent on the opposite side
impacted fractureone fragment is driven firmly into the other fragment
dislocationwhen a bone is displaced from its normal position in the joint
reductiongentle force to return a dislocated bone to its proper position
closed reductionmanipulating the bone to its normal position without surgery
open reductionrestoring the bone to its normal position through the use of surgery
grade I sprainligaments are swollen and tender, but not torn
grade II sprainligament is partially torn, joint is swollen, painful, and bruised
grade III sprainligament is completely torn and the joint can’t be moved without intense pain
RICE stands forRest, Ice for 48 hrs, compression of the injury with an elastic wrap, elevation of the sprained area above the heart
castapplied to fractures to immobilize the bone
bone callusforms and unites the bone ends while a bone is immobilized in a cast


Question Answer
talipes or clubfootprevents the patient from standing with the sole of the foot flat on the ground
kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosisabnormal curvatures of the spine (congenital disorders)
kyphosisoccurs when there is an outward curvature of the thoracic spine (humpback)
lordosisan exaggerated inward curve (sway-back) of the spine
scoliosisan abnormal sideways curvature of the spine


Question Answer
alkaline phosphatase blood testdetermines the level of alkaline phosphatase, which increases in osteoblastic bone tumors, rickets, osteomalacia, and during fracture healing
calcium (Ca) blood testdetermines the calcium level of the blood which may be increased in metastatic bone cancer and acute osteoporosis
phosphorus (P) blood testdetermines the phosphorus level in the blood, which may be increased in osteoporosis and during fracture healing


Question Answer
bone scanused to evaluate the skeletal involvement related to connective tissue disease, a camera scans the entire body and a recording is made on paper
photon absorptiometrya bone scan that uses a low beam of radiation to measure bone-mineral density and bone loss in the lumbar vertebrae, useful in monitoring osteoporosis
lumbosacral spinal radiograph (L.S. Spine)radiological study of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, used to diagnose lower back pain
myelographyan opaque medium or air is injected into the spinal subarachnoid space through a spinal puncture, and then a radiograph is taken of the subarachnoid space


Question Answer
amputationpartial or complete removal of a limb
prosthesisa device constructed to replace a missing limb
bone graftingtransplantation of bone
coccygectomyan excision of the coccyx or tailbone
laminectomysurgical excision of the posterior arch of vertebra, most often used to relieve symptoms of a slipped disk
osteoplastyplastic surgery of the bones
sequestrectomyan excision of a sequestrum
craniectomysurgical removal of a portion of the skull
craniotomysurgical incision or opening into the skull
diskectomysurgical removal of an intervertebral disk
osteoclasisintentional surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
osteoectomysurgical removal of a bone
osteotomysurgical division or section of a bone

Section 2

Question Answer
bones are joined or ____ to one anotherarticulated
a ____ is the point of contact between two bonesjoint
a joint is also referred to as an ____articulation
people who study anatomy of the body are called ____anatomists
the classification of joints are divided into three main structural typesdiarthroses, amphiarthroses, and synarthroses
the small space that exists between two joining bones is called the ____joint cavity
diarthrotic joints are composed of the following partsjoint capsule, articular cartilage, and a synovial membrane
the strong, fibrous connective tissues that line the joint capsules are called ____ligaments
____ lie within the clefts between bones and secrete synovial fluid to reduce frictionbursa sacs