Cellular Anatomy, Integumentary And Musculoskeletal Systems - Part 2

valencia's version from 2017-06-16 04:23

Section 1

Question Answer
dermal or corium layer containshair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
fibroblast cellsproduce fiber that helps to repair injuries
histiocyte cells arephagocyte cells, which protect the body by swallowing foreign materials such as bacteria
mast cellscontain histamine, a substance that produces allergic reactions, and heparin, a substance that hinders blood clotting
collagena gluey protein the provides skin with strength and elasticity
printswhirls and loops found on the sole of feet and palms of hand, formed from the ridges and furrows found on the corium layer
receptorsmake it possible for the skin to distinguish hot from cold, and pain from pleasure


Question Answer
subcutaneous or hypodermal layerconnective tissue layer that attaches the skin to the muscles and to other tissues beneath
lipocytesfat cells that are stored in the subcutaneous layer in a special tissue called adipose tissue
neoplasmsabnormal cell growth which can form skin tumors
bacterial infectionsare treated with antibiotics and possibly drainage of the infected fluid (eg. impetigo, boils, carbuncles)
fungal skin infectionsare treated with specific antifungal agents (eg. athlete’s foot, ringworm)
viral skin infectionscan be treated with antiviral medications, lesions tend to recur (eg. herpes simplex, shingles)
parasitic skin infectionsany louse infestation of the head, pubic area or body, or scabies an infection caused by the itch mite (eg. pediculosis)
primary skin lesions and secondary skin lesionstwo types of altered tissue
primary skin lesionslesions that are the result of infections, allergies, abnormal injuries, or wounds
secondary skin lesionsinferior lesions that are the result of primary lesions


Question Answer
maculesnonpalpable discolored spots or patches
papulessmall, solid, circumscribed, raised areas of skin (eg. warts, moles, pimples)
nodulepapule larger than 5mm in diameter
pustulessmall, elevated, circumscribed pus-containing lesions
pusprotein-rich liquid inflammation product made of leukocytes, a thin fluid, and cellular debris
vesiclesblister-like elevations containing serous fluid (eg. dermatitis, burns, chicken pox, scabies)
bullavesicle larger than 5mm
whealslocalized area of edema on the body (eg. urticaria, hives)
fistulasabnormal passages from a hollow organ to the skin’s surface
scaleshardened flakes or flat pieces of skin
abrasionthe scraping away of epiderma
exocoriationsuperficial loss of tissue resulting from trauma, chemicals, or burns
contusioninjured skin that’s not broken
lacertationtorn flesh


Question Answer
scabs or crustaceansform over primary lesions as they begin to heal
ulceropen sore or lesion caused by trauma, caustics, intense heat or cold, hemostasis, or bacterial infection
cicatrixa scar from a wound that has healed
keloidprogressively enlarging, irregularly shaped scar tissue due to excessive collagen formation in the corium during tissue repair
hypertrophiedraised, firm, thickened condition of a scar
eczema, psoriasis, urticariainflammatory skin disorders
inflammatory skin disorder sometimes caused by asthma, treated with topical corticosteroidseczema
inflammatory skin disorder that presents in form of generalized disorder, sometimes affects jointspsoriasis
inflammatory skin disorder also referred to as hives, caused by ingestion of an allergen (either food or drug)urticaria


Question Answer
neoplastic diseasesbenign or malignant skin growth that spreads uncontrollably
areas of the skin that have thickened because of constant pressurecorns or calluses
an enlarged, thickened scar that forms after trauma or surgical incisionkeloid
horny growth (eg. wart or callus) that thickens the epidermiskertosis
white, thickened patch found on mucous membrane tissue of tongue, cheek, or gumsleukoplakia
circumscribed stable malformation of the skin with no external cause (eg. birthmarks, moles)nevus
mushroom-like growth that extends on a stalk from the surface of the mucous membranepolyp
lesions on the skin caused by human papillomaviruswarts or verruca
basal carcinoma, squamous carcinoma, malignant melanomathree most common skin malignancies
tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis or hair follicle, rarely metastasizes, high cure rate with early detectionbasal carcinoma
results from underlying skin cell damage to the squamous epitheliumsquamous carcinoma
the most serious of the three common skin malignancies, develops from nevus and consists of black masses of cells, spreads quicklymalignant melanoma
dark blue-purple macules, papules, and nodules form on limbs, trunk, head, and neck due to growth of small blood vessels, usually affects individuals with depressed immune systemskaposi’s sarcoma
chronic and rapidly progressive skin disease caused by malignant lymphocytes, tumors spread from skin to lymph nodes and visceramycosis fungoides


Question Answer
skin damage that occurs from overexposure to heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation, classified by severityburns
first-degree burnminor burn, some redness but no blistering, little tissue has been destroyed
second-degree burnburn causes injury but does not destroy top layers of dermis, causes severe pain, swelling, and fluid loss, usually results in scarring
third-degree burnmost severe burn, epidermis and dermis are completely destroyed and damage extends into subcutaneous layer, requires skin graft
deep third-degree burnburn damage goes into the fat, muscle, and bone
rule of ninesused to estimate the percentage of the body that has been burned


Question Answer
pressure or decubitus ulcerscaused by direct pressure due to prolonged immobility
stage I pressure ulcersreddened skin, but skin is not broken
stage II pressure ulcersbroken or unbroken blisters, skin is red and irritated
stage III pressure ulcersskin breakage through all layers
stage IV pressure ulcersulcers go through all layers of skin and can affect muscles, tendons, and bone

Section 2

Question Answer
these two glands pump secretions over the skinsweat and sebaceous
eccrinesweat glands that are widespread throughout the body, tiny coiled tubes that reach the epidermis through crooked ducts called pores
apocrinesweat glands primarily found in the axillae (armpits) and in the pigmented skin around the genitals, produces thicker, milky secretion that can be odorous
mammary glandsmodified sweat gland, secretes milk after birth of a child
ceruminous glandslocated in skin that lines the external auditory canals, secrete cerumen
sebaceous glandscommonly attached to hair follicles, secretes an oily substance called sebum
sebumoils the hair, lubricates the skin, and prevents water loss
blackhead or comedoforms when sebum and dead cells accumulate in the sebaceous gland


Question Answer
hair is composed of these four partshair shaft, hair root, hair follicle, papilla
lanugoextremely fine hair of infants and newborns
pilomotor or arrector pili musclesalso called goosebumps, react to cold and fear
nailshard, keratin-filled plates composed of tightly cemented horny cells, protect fingertips
sebaceous cystsdevelops when the sebaceous gland fills with thick fluid
hyperhidrosisexcessive sweating
hidradenitisinflammation of the sweat glands
fibroadenomasencapsulated benign neoplasms usually found near the areola
galactorrheamilk production in breasts outside of pregnancy, caused by excessive amounts of estrogen or overproduction of prolactin
alopeciahair disease that causes baldness
alopecia areatahair disease that results in patches of hair loss
alopecia totalishair disease that causes complete body hair loss
paronychiaan infection of the skin adjacent to the nail

Section 3

Question Answer
bacterial analysessamples of purulent material or exudate are sent to the laboratory
exudatefluid that accumulates in a space or passes out of tissues
biopsyexcision and examination of skin lesions that exhibit signs of malignancy
fungal testtest done to determine if a fungus form is growing in a lesion
blastomycosis skin testintradermal test performed on the inner aspect of the forearm to identify the presence of blastomyces dermatitis
antigena substance that stimulates antibody production and illicits an immune response
coccidioidomycosis skin testintradermal test performed on the inner aspect of the forearm to identify the presence of coccidiodes immitis
histoplasmosis skin testintradermal test performed on the inner aspect of the forearm to identify the presence of histoplasma capsulatum
sweat testtest performed on sweat to determine the level of chloride concentrated on skin, increase in skin chloride can indicate cystic fibrosis
trichinosis skin testintradermal test performed on the inner aspect of the forearm to identify the presence of the parasite trichinella spiralis (cause by eating infected, poorly cooked pork)
tuberculin skin testperformed to identify the presence of the tubercle bacilli
tine or mono-vice testintradermal test performed using a multiple-puncture lancet, tuberculin is on metal tines that are pressed into the skin
patch testtuberculin is placed on a small square gauze and applied to the skin of the forearm
mantoux testpurified protein derivative tuberculin (PPD) is intradermally injected
tzanck testa small piece of tissue is scraped from a pustule, placed on a slide, and stained, viral infection is identified by examination through microscope
wound culturea test done on wound exudate to determine the presence of microorganisms, antibiotic prescribed for identified microbes
patch testsuspected allergen is placed on small piece of gauze and placed on skin
scratch testscratches are made on skin and tiny amounts of test material are applied to scratches
intradermal testreactive substance is injected between the layers of skin


Question Answer
cryosurgerytissue is destroyed by the application of intensely cold nitrogen
mohs surgerythin layers of malignant growth are removed and examined under a microscope, also called microscopically controlled surgery
punch biopsyperformed in cases where complete excision isn’t feasible, involves the use of a surgical instrument that removes a core of tissue by the rotation of a sharp, circular edge
skin graftingthe use of skin from another part of the body, or from another donor, to repair defect or trauma of the skin
autograftsurgical transplantation of any tissue from one part of the body to another location in the same individual, commonly used to replace skin lost to severe burns
homograftalso called allograft, is transplant tissue obtained from tissue from individuals of the same species but different genotype
xenografttransplant tissue obtained from a different species
dermabrasionthe planing (rubbing away) of skin done by mechanical means (eg. sandpaper) and mechanical methods on the frozen epidermis
electrodesiccationdestruction of tissue by desication (dehydration) performed by means of high-frequency electric current
electrolysisalso known as fulguration, is the decomposition of tissue using long, high-frequency electric sparks
lumpectomyan excision of a small primary breast tumor with the remainder of the breast left in tact
mastectomysurgical removal of all or part of a breast
radical mastectomysurgical removal of the entire breast and neighboring lymph nodes, along with skin around nipples, areolas, and the tumor, and chest muscles
mammoplastysurgical reconstruction of the breast, sometimes augmented (increased) by substances such as fat tissue or silicon to alter the size and shape
mastoplexysurgical fixation of an overly loose breast


Question Answer
FASCI/Osheet, band

Section 4

Question Answer
vertebratesorganisms with a backbone or spine
invertebratesorganisms without a backbone or spine
skeleton, joints, musclesthree main parts of human musculoskeletal system
skeletonframework of bones in the body
cartilage tissuea flexible and less dense tissue than bones
ossificationprocess of bone formation where cartilage hardens into bones by calcium and salt deposits
compact bonea dense, hard bone located near the surface of the bone
spongy or cancellous bone: found on the inner wall of the bone, consists of a network of thin strands of bone, and the spaces are filled with bone marrow
Question Answer
bone marrowlocated inside the bones, consists of fat or blood cells
hemopoiesis or hematopiesisproduction of blood cells by red marrow


Question Answer
diaphysis or shafthollow time made of hard compact bone
medullary cavityhollow area inside the diaphysis, contains yellow marrow
epiphysesends of the bone, composed of spongy (cancellous) bone
articular cartilagethin layer of cartilage that covers each epiphysis
periosteumstrong, fibrous membrane that covers a bone except at joint surface
endosteuma fibrous membrane that lines the medullary cavity
long bonesfound in the thigh, lower leg, upper arm, and lower arm
short bonesfound in the wrist and ankle
flat bonesskull, shoulder, ribs, and pelvic bones, cover soft body parts
irregular-shaped bonesbones found in the vertebrae and covering the kneecap
epiphysial platehelps doctors determine how much bone growth is left in children