Cellular Anatomy, Integumentary And Musculoskeletal Systems - Part 1

valencia's version from 2017-06-16 04:22

Section 1

Question Answer
organismcomplex, living being composed of structures that have a specific function in the whole
cellsthe smallest structures of the body
tissuesformed by grouped together cells
organsformed from different types of tissues
organ systemswhen organs work together
atomsthe smallest particles of an element
moleculessmallest amount of a substance
microscopicso small it can only be seen with microscope
ovumfemale’s egg
epithelialskin cells


Question Answer
plasma membranecell membrane that serves as the outer boundary of a cell
nucleuslocated in center of cell, acts as the command and control center
cytoplasmthe material that forms the cell
organellesspecialized parts of cells with important functions
endoplasmic reticulumconnects the parts of the cell, functions in transportation and storage


Question Answer
cell divisionthe process by which new cells are made
daughter cellsduring cell division the contents of a cells is divided between these cells
meiosisa process of cell division involved in reproduction
chromosomesstructures within the cell’s nucleus that contain your genes
genescells within your chromosomes that contain DNA
DNAgenetic blueprint that determines how an individual looks and functions
gametessex cells containing the 46 chromosomes
zygotesingle cell that is the combination of an egg and sperm
mitosisthe process through which the zygote eventually becomes a baby
embryothe result of a zygote undergoing mitosis
fetusthe end result of a developed embryo


Question Answer
phases of mitosisinterphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
interphaseresting stage of mitosis, cell is not going through active division
replicationmaking an exact copy of the DNA molecules in the chromosomes
centriolesorganelles responsible for dividing the cell
prophasefirst part of active division, pair of centrioles separate, cytoplasm forms between them, nuclear membrane dissolves
nucleolusthe center of the nucleus
chromatidone of two strands that comprise the chromosomes
metaphasethird state of mitosis, nuclear membrane dissolves completely and the chromatids line up
anaphaseshortest phase of mitotic process, chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell, each strand is a chromosome
telophasefinal phase of mitosis, chromosomes arrive at each end of cell, new nuclear membranes form around them, once cytoplasm forms around each one, this phase is finished


Question Answer
electrolytessalts and minerals that control fluid balance in the body
diffusionthe movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosisthe process by which cells become isotonic
filtrationforcing water molecules and small particles through a membrane, whereas larger particles don’t pass through
passive transportprocess of cells moving particles across the membrane, does not require input of energy (eg. diffusion, osmosis, filtration)
active transportprocess of cells moving particles across the membrane, requires input of energy (eg. pinocytosis, phagocytosis)
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)the energy used in active transport, supplied by cell metabolism
pinocytosisprocess in which the cell takes in liquid outside the cell by making a small crater in the cell membrane
phagocytosisprocess in which the cell engulfs a large particle
cytoskeletonthe skeleton of cells


Question Answer
specializationprocess occurring in early embryo development where cells develop a certain look and function
tumor and neoplasmindicate abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells
benign tumorsdo not result in death, growth is confined to one area
lipomatumor of fat cells, benign
nodulebenign tumor in thyroid gland
malignant tumorsresult in serious illness or death, cells divide and multiply at the expense of normal, healthy cells
metastasiswhen malignant tumors (cancer) send cells into distant sites of the body

Section 2

Question Answer
epithelial, muscle, connective, nervetissue types
epithelial tissuecovers the inner and outer surfaces of the body (ie. skin)
squamous epithelial cellsform the outer layer of skin
columnar epithelial cellsform the lining of the digestive tract and respiratory tract
cubodial epithelial cellsform the tissue that protects the kidney tubules and covers ovaries
endocrine gland cellsform a kind of epithelial tissues that secretes its products directly into the bloodstream (eg. thyroid gland)
exocrine gland cellssecretes its products into a compartment of the body outside of the bloodstream (eg. sweat)
striated muscle tissuecomposes skeletal muscles which are under voluntary control (eg. walking)
smooth muscle tissuecomposes skeletal muscles which are under involuntary control from the nervous system (ex. intestines propel food along)
cardiac muscle tissueinvoluntary tissue found only in the heart
connective tissueconnects or supports other body structures (eg. fat, cartilage, bone, blood, scars)
fasciaconnective tissue that forms a membrane to invest or surround muscles or organs to separate and support them
cartilagerubbery, smooth material that lines the surface of joints
adiopose tissuea form of connective tissue that can also provide energy in the form of lipid molecules
bloodtransports nutrients and wastes to and from cells
lymphinterstitial fluid that has been filtered by lymph vessels
nerve tissueextends throughout the body to carry messages to and from the brain, coordinating functions of the entire body
nerve cell or neuronfundamental unit of nervous tissue, conducts signals from one end of the cell to another (eg. pain, smell, sight, sound, taste)


Question Answer
scardense mat of fibrous material that appears after normal tissue is damaged (ie. response to injury)
membranesformed when two thin layers of tissue join together
epithelial and connectivetwo major classifications of membranes
mucous membranetype of epithelial membrane lining the digestive tract, respiratory passages and genitourinary tract
serous membranespleural, pericardial, peritoneal
pleural membranesline the pleural cavity, produces fluid to lubricate the expansion and contraction of lungs
pleuritisinflammation of the pleura
parietal pleural membranetype of epithelial membrane lining the inside of the rib cage
visceral pleural membranetype of epithelial membrane lining the outside of the lungs
pericardial membranetype of epithelial membrane lining the heart
peritoneal membranesline the abdominal cavity
parietal peritoneal membranestype of epithelial membrane lining the inner surface of the peritoneal cavity
visceral peritoneal membranestype of epithelial membrane lining the outer surfaces of the stomach and intestines
peritonitisinflammation of the peritoneal cavity
parietalrelating to the walls of a cavity
visceralrelating to an organ
synovial membranes and meningestwo types of connective membranes
synovial membranesline the cavities of joints the move freely (eg. shoulders, elbows, knees, fingers)
synovial fluidsecreted by membrane, allows cartilage on the ends of bones to move smoothly
synovitisinflammation of the synovial membrane (eg. arthritis, lupus, gout)
meningescoverings on the brain and spinal cord in the dorsal cavity
cerebrospinal fluidsecreted by meninges
meningitisinflammation of the meninges

Section 3

Question Answer
specialized body part in which various types of tissue help to perform a certain function for the bodyorgan
group of organs functioning togetherbody system
heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, lymphatic structurescirculatory system
hair, teeth, skin, sweat and oil glands, fingernails, toenailsintegumentary system
cartilage, bones, tendons, joints, skeletal muscle, ligamentsmusculoskeletal system
blood vessels, blood, heartcardiovascular system
nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, diaphragmrespiratory system
mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, large and small intestinedigestive system
eyes, ears, tongue, sensory receptors in skinsensory organs
sensory organs, brain, spinal cord, nervesnervous system with sensory organs
pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal glandsendocrine system
kidneys, urethra, ureters, bladderurinary system
uterus, ovary, uterine or fallopian tube, cervix, vaginafemale reproductive system
bladder, seminal vesicle, pubis of pelvis, prostate gland, penis, urethra, testesmale reproductive system
tonsils, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes, lymph vesselslymphatic system


Question Answer
structures that function in cell reproductioncentrioles
short, tightly coiled rods that contain geneschromosomes
substance between plasma membrane and the nucleus of a cellcytoplasm
nucleic acid that contains genetic instructions for cell replicationdeoxyribonucleic acid
system of membranes in cytoplasmendoplasmic reticulum
tissue that protects, lines, or invests body organsepithelial tissue
connective tissue membrane that invests body partsfascia
regions of DNA organized into the body’s “blueprint”genes
cover or surround a body partinvest
muscle tissues that are controlled automatically by the nervous systeminvoluntary muscle tissues
the substance of the nucleus, sometimes called nucleoplasmkaryoplasm
picture of chromosomes in the cell nucleuskaryotype
tissue specializing in movement of body part, may be voluntary, involuntary, or cardiacmuscle tissue
tissue that carries nerve impulsesnerve tissue
cell structure that dictates protein production and controls transport, metabolism, growth, and hereditynucleus
structures within the cytoplasmorganelles
outside boundary of a cell, also called cell membraneplasma membrane
space between lungs and pleurapleural cavity
“protein factories” that make proteinsribosomes
striped appearance of voluntary musclesstriated
internal organs, particularly of the abdominal cavityviscus and viscera

Section 4

Question Answer
three main skin layersepidermis, dermis or corium, subcutaneous or hypodermal
top skin layer, consists of five more layers called strataepidermis
surface layer of keratinized skin cellsstratum corneum
found only on the palms of hands and soles of feetstratum lucidum
where cells begin to keratinize and get pushed to the surfacestratum granulosum
produces keratin, melanin and macrophagesstratum spinosum
also called stratum basale, the deepest epidermal layerstratum germinativum
hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, mammary glands, cerumen glandsskin’s accessory organs


Question Answer
epidermis layeroutermost layer of skin
capillariestiniest blood vessels, carry nourishment to all the cells and tissues
basal layerdeepest layer of cells in the epidermis
melanocytesthe cells responsible for skin color
keratinocytes and langerhanscells that protect the skin
melaninproduced by melanocytes, they are a type of protein that gives color to hair and skin
keratinthe substance that constitutes hair and nails
palmoplantar skinlayer of skin only found on soles of the feet and the palms of the hands
hornycells dead, keratin-filled cells that serve as a water-resistant covering for the body
cell turnovercells continually die and are replaced by new cells