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Cells

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lunifer's version from 2018-04-27 15:32

Notes

animal cell diagram: Animal Cell Diagram
plant cell diagram: Plant Cell Diagram

 

i've added lots of things to the test that probably aren't on the test because why not? just in case, this is a test after all
only test your knowledge here, because i simplify information
let me know if i have errors or suggest additions

 

( https://www.kongregate.com/games/CellCraft/cellcraft ) play this educational fun game about cells, works 10/10 you play as a hybrid cell and fight lots of viruses and also get eaten by a crocodile!!

Characteristics of Living Things

Question Answer
what mnemonic device do we use to remember characteristics of living things?MRS GREN
movementplants and animals move (plants open/close petals, animals walk around)
respirationbreathing, animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide, plants do the opposite, etc
sensitivityplants are sensitive to light and gravity, animals are sensitive to many things such as light and sound
growthplants and animals grow
reproductionplants and animals can make more of themselves
excretionall living things give off waste, such as moisture or poop
nutritionanimals need to eat food, plants can make their own food, we all gotta eat
name all the characteristicsmovement, respiration, sensitivity, growth, reproduction, excretion, nutrition
memorize

Life and Such

Question Answer
what are cells?cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things
what is cell theory?cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing
what is the 1st principle of cell theory?all living things are composed of one or more cells
what is the 2nd principle of cell theory?the cell is the most basic unit of life
what is the 3rd principle of cell theory?all cells come from pre-existing cells
what are organelles?organelles are parts of a cell that have a specific function (comparable to organs in a body)
what would happen if you were only made of one cell?you would only be able to grow to a certain size, you wouldn't have a nervous system or muscles for movement
how many cells do humans have?about 100 trillion (thought according to the internet it's different...?)
humans may have _______ of types of cellshundreds
all cells share something in common, which issome type of membrane
are viruses living things?no, it is considered non-living
what are heterotrophic microbes?microbes that eat other things
what are autotrophic microbes?microbes that make food for themselves
what are prokaryotes?cells without a defined nucleus (DNA and stuff floating around the cell)
what are eukaryotes?"classic cell", have a nucleus and organized organelles
what are the differences between a plant cell and an animal cell?plant cells have chloroplasts and cell walls whereas animal cells do not, vacuoles are larger in plant cells
what is biology?biology is the study of life and the changes that take place with and around all living things
what are microorganisms/microbes?creatures that need to be seen with a microscope
how and when was the microscope invented?1673, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek put some lenses together to make a microscope
memorize

Organelles and Such

apparently golgi apparatus is not on the test but i like the golgi apparatus so it stays :D
try the matching mode first
Question Answer
what does the nucleus look like?a dark sphere found near the centre of the cell
what does the nucleus do?controls the cell, contains DNA
what does the cell wall look like?a thick, rigid layer that surrounds the cell (plant cells alone), made of cellulose
what does the cell wall do?make the cell very strong, support + shape, allows plant to grow tall
what does the cell membrane look like?a thin flexible layer that surrounds a plant or animal cell
what does the cell membrane do?allows nutrients to enter the cell, allow waste particles to exit the cell, keeps organelles together
what does the cytoplasm look like?a liquid inside the cell
what does the cytoplasm do?delivers oxygen or carbon dioxide and food to all cell parts, contains organelles, site of chemical reactions, allows cell to move
what does the vacuole look like?a container filled with water, bigger in plant cells
what does the vacuole do?holds water and nutrients
what does the endoplasmic reticulum look like?a container with many exterior folds, rough = ribosomes, smooth = no ribosomes
what does the endoplasmic reticulum do?makes nutrients and breaks down waste
what does the mitochondria look like?a container with many inner folds
what does the mitochondria do?makes energy for the cell
what does the chloroplast look like?an oval shaped container with many interior containers
what does the chloroplast do?uses sunlight to make food, contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
what does the golgi apparatus look like?organelle with a system of flattened tubular membranes
what does the golgi apparatus do?modifies proteins and sends them to their appropriate destinations
what do lysosomes look like?organelles that contain digestive enzyme, single membrane
whay do lysosomes do?digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles and engulf virus or bacteria
what do ribosomes look like?non membrane bound organelles, they look like small dots
what do ribosomes do?they are where enzymes and other proteins are assembled
what do chromosomes carry?made up of DNA, they carry all of the information used to help a cell grow, thrive, and reproduce
memorize

Electron Microscope

you don't really need to know the specifics of electron microscopes, just know what it is and the pros and cons i guess?
Question Answer
what is an electron microscope?an electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen and create a highly magnified image
list some things that electron microscopes are used to investigatemicroorganisms, cells, molecules, biopsy samples, metals, crystal
samples for an electron microscope must be ______dead
samples for an electron microscope usually need to be coated with a ________ materialconductive
electron microscopes are _______ to build and maintainexpensive
electron microscope specimens usually have to be viewed in a _______vacuum
pro of electron microscopes?MUCH more effective than light microscopes, can be used to see atoms!! important for professional work
con of electron microscopes?extremely expensive, requires a ton of technology just to maintain, hard to access (need to have good reason to buy them)
memorize