Cell structure and function

hasanahatesscience's version from 2015-10-16 10:53


Question Answer
Prokaryoticdo not have structures surronded by the membranes, few internal structures, one celled organisms: Bacteria
Eukaryoticcontain organelles surronded by membranes, most living organisms are composed of thousands of cells
cell membranesouter membrane of cell that controls movement in/out of cell. double layer made of lipids protein and cholesteral, selectively permeable, only certain materials pass thru
cell wallmost commonly found in plant cells and bacteria. supports/protects cells
nucleusdirects cell activities. seperated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane. contains genetic material (DNA). in the centre, contains chromosones
nuclear membranesurronds nucleus, made of two layers. openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
chromosonesin nucleus. made of dna. contains instructions for traits and characteristics
nucleolussmall sphere located inside nucleus. contains RNA to build proteins
cytoplasmgel like mixture where all work is done. surronded by cell membrane.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)moves materials around in cell
smooth ERlacks ribosomes, produces lipids
rough ERribosomes embedded in surface, protein synthesis
ribosomeseach cell contains thousands of these organelles involved in the process of protein synthesis. found on the ER and floating in cell
mitochondriaproduces energy thorugh chem. reactions. power house. creates ATP for cellular functions. works in presence of oxygen/nutrients
golgi bodiesprotein packing plant. moves materials within the cell and out
lysosome (suicide sack)digestive plant for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal. breaks down if lysosome explodes. can destroy cell
vacuolesmembrane. sacs for storage, digestion and waste removal. water solution. helps plants maintain shape
chloroplastfound in plant cell. never in animal cell. green chlorophyl. photosynthesis takes place
centriotesonly found in animal and some plant cells. play key role in cell division (mitosis) only present during cell division

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