Cell Membrane & Transport

zoeleow5's version from 2015-09-10 06:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Channel ProteinGap/pores in membrane that selectively allows particular materials to pass in/out of cell; not as selective as carrier protein.
Carrier ProteinOnly allows one particular type of molecule to cross.
Receptor ProteinRecognition protein that is activated when selectively blinded to a ligand.
GlycoproteinProtein that has carbohydrate molecules attached; Aids in cell recognition.
Peripheral ProteinFound on inner/outer surface of lipid bilgier, and can be attached to internal/external surface of an integral protein. Acts as digestive enzymes to break down nutrients to sizes that can pass through cells/bloodstream.

Section 2

Question Answer
GlycocalyxAllows cell to bind to another cell; for lubrication and protection of the cell; contains receptors for hormones; has enzymes to break down nutrients.
ProteoglycansRegulates movement of molecules coming in and out of membrane
GlycolipidsLipid with Carbohydrate attached; helps determine blood type; serves as marker for cellular recognition.

Section 3

Question Answer
DiffusionMovement of particles from an area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration; Substances such as lipid-soluble molecules or small molecules can move through w/o energy; Form of passive transport.
Concentration GradientDifference in concentration of a substance across a space.
OsmosisDiffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane; Occurs when there is an imbalance of solutes outside a cell compared to the inside of the cell.
Facilitated DiffusionDiffusion process used for substances that are to big to cross lipid bilayer; done with aid of specialised carrier protein/channel protein.
Active transportmovement of substances across the membrane using energy from ATP; Occurs when substances moves across against its concentration gradient.
EndocytosisProcess of cell ingesting material by enveloping it in a portion of its membrane, then pinching off that portion of membrane; The pinched off portion becomes an independent vesicle.
Phagocytosisendocytosis of large particles; cell eating
Pinocytosisbrings fluid containing dissolved substances into a cell through membrane vesicles; cell drinking
ExocytosisProcess of cell exporting material to ECF using vesicular transport.