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Cell II Drugs

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jenodevu's version from 2017-05-02 02:52

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Question Answer
actinomycin Dinhibits transcription in prokaryotes and eukarytoes by intercalating into DNA and preventing RNA synthesis
acridineinhibits transcription in prokaryotes and eukarytoes by intercalating into DNA and preventing RNA synthesis
rifamycininhibits transcription in prokaryotes (but not eukaryotes) by binding to prokaryotic RNA polymerase to prevent phosphodiester bond formation
rifampiciniinhibits transcription in prokaryotes (but not eukaryotes) by binding to prokaryotic RNA polymerase to prevent phosphodiester bond formation
alpha-amanitininhibits transcription in eukaryotes by binding RNA polymerase II (doesn't affect prokaryotes). Efficiently blocks synthesis of mRNA, but not of tRNA or rRNA in eukaryotic organisms.
zidovudine(ZDV=AZT) analog of thymine that blocks further DNA synthesis
5-FUconverted to 5-dUMP, which blocks thymidylate synthase from converting dUMP to dTMP for DNA synthesis; can therefore also affect RNA synthesis and will cause further problems in DNA when it is inserted in place of dTTP
allopurinolanalog of hypoxanthine that blocks xanthine oxidase to prevent hyperuricedemia and gout
For antimetabolites, name cell cycle they target, mechanism of action, and some examplesS phase; inhibit RNA/DNA metabolism; methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine
For vinca alkaloids and taxanes, name cell cycle they target, mechanism of action, and some examplesM-phase; inhibit microtubules; vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, docetaxel
For epipodophyllotoxins, name cell cycle they target, mechanism of action, and some examplesG2-phase; inhibit topoisomerase II; etoposide, teniposide
For camptotecins, name cell cycle targeted, mechanism of action, and some examplesG2-phase; inhibit topoisomerase I; topotecan, irinotecan
methotrexateinhibits dihydrofolate reductase which is involved in the synthesis of methylene THF and formyl THF (used by thymidylate synthase and in purine synthesis, respectively); very effective in ALL treatment
6-mercaptopurine (6MP)inhibits PRPP amidotransferase in purine synthesis after being converted to 6MP-ribose by HGPRT
vincristine and vinblastinebind to tubulin dimers to prevent microtubule synthesis and promote microtubule depolymerization
paclitaxel and docetaxelpromote microtubule super stability to prevent mitosis
etoposide and tenetoposideinhibit topoisomerase II to prevent religation of double-strand DNA breaks
topotecan and irinotecaninhibit topoisomerase I to prevent religation of single-strand DNA breaks
anthracyclinsantibiotic used to induce single and double-stranded DNA/RNA breaks
bleomycins antibiotic used to induce fragmentation of DNA
nitrogen mustards and nitrosureasalkylate DNA and carbamoylate proteins to form DNA adducts and interfere with function
cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatinplatinum coordination complexes that react with DNA, leading to intra or interstrand crosslinking
tamoxifentargets estrogen receptors; anti-cancer drug
bicalutamidetargets androgen receptors; anti-cancer drug
imatinib/Gleevectargets bcr-abl fusion gene; anti-cancer drug
bevacizumab (Avastin)targets VEGF; anti-cancer drug
sunitinib (Sutent)targets VEGF receptor kinase;anti-cancer drug
sorafinib (Nexavar)targets VEGF receptor/Raf kinase; anti-cancer drug
bortezomib (Velcade)targets proteasomes; anti-cancer drug
decitabine and azacytidinetarget DNA methyltransferases; anti-cancer drugs
vorinostattargets histone deacetyases; anti-cancer drug
tetracyclineinhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes by inhibiting binding of aminoacyl-tRNA
chloramphenicolinhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes by inhibiting peptidyl transferase activity
erythromycininhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes by binding to 50S subunit and inhibiting translocation
streptomycininhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes by causing misreading and inhibiting initiation
neomycininhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes by interfering with 16S rRNA
kanamycininhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes by interfering with 16S rRNA
gentamycininhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes by interfering with 16S rRNA
chycloheximideinhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes by blocking peptidyl transferase activity
diphtheria toxininhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes by binding translocase to inactivate translocation during translation
ricininhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes by inactivating 60S rRNA
puromycininhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes by coming in as a tRNA to a ribosome and stopping translation
sulfonilamidesinhibit folic acid synthesis (needed for de novo purine synthesis) in bacteria by competing with PABA
ARA-A (vidarabine)used to treat herpes virus, converted to ARA-ATP to inhibit DNA polymerase activity (mistakes it for dATP)
ARA-C (cytyarabine)used to treat AML and non-hodgkin's lymphomas, converted to ARA-CTP to inhibit DNA polymerase activity
trastuzumab (Herceptin)targets her2/neu receptors on tumor cells; anticancer drug
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