Cell biology

aargueta93's version from 2015-12-01 03:20


Question Answer
3 parts to the cell chemical composition?protoplasm, organic and inorganic compounds
What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?Organic compounds will have carbon and inorganic will not
By combining carbon with hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen what is possible?makes life possible
What percentage of the cell is made up of protiens?15%, they are essential for growth, construction of new body tissue and repair of injured or debilitated tissue
What are protiens?formed when amino acids combine into long, chain like molecular complexes
How many different amino acids are there in protein synthesis22 different amino acids
What determines the funciton of protiens?The arrangement of the amino acids will determine the precise function.
Define Hormoneschemecial secretions manufactured by various endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream to influence the activities of other parts of the body
Define antibodiesprotein molecules produced by specialized cells in the bone marrow called B lumphocytes, are produced in the body when T lymphocytes detect the presence of molecules that do not belong in the body
What percentage of the cell content does carbohydrates make up?1%, primary function is to provide fuel for cell metabolism
Lipids constitute what percentage of the cell?2 % made up of a molecule of glycerin and 3 molecules, are the structural part of cell membranes.
Nucleic acids comprise what percentage of cell?1%, very large complex macromolecules, are made up by nucleotides. 2 types would be DNA and RNA
DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acidcomposed of two long sugar phosphate chains, which twist around around each other in a double helix configuration and are linked by pairs of nitrogenous organic bases at the sugar molecule of the chain
what are the 4 nitrogenous organic bases?adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine. are joint together by a hydrogen bond
mRNA ( messenger RNA)transmitted genetic information outside the cell nucleus by reproducing itself in the form of mRNA, leaves the nucleus and once in the cytoplasm directs the process of making proteins out of amino acids. Thymine replaced by Uracil in DNA strand ( mRNA takes the information out from the nucleus to perform protein synteszis
tRNA ( transfer RNA)receives genetic code from mRNA, combines with individual amino acids from different area of the cell and attaches them to the ribosomes, where amino acids are arranged in specific orders to form chain like protein molecules, 22 different types of tRNA exist one for each amino acid.
PROCESS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS- mRNA takes information from the DNA in the nucleus into the cytoplasm to the ribosomes. - The tRNA comes into the ribosomes matching up w/ the information and than making different types of amino acids. -ribosome insert protein into the rough ER, it is sent of in a vesicle to the golgi apparatus, than sorts it/modifies and builds another vesicle
What is the end product of Mitosis2 identical daughter cells, is a process in which the nucleus 1st divides, followed by the division of the cytoplasm
Wlaw of bergoine and tribondeaustates that the radiosensitivity of cells is directly proportional to their repoductive activity and inversely proportional to their degree of differentialn

Function of structures of cell

Question Answer
Cell MembraneFunctions as a barricade to protect cellular contents from their environment and controls the passage of water and other materials into and out of the cell; performs many additional functions such as elimination os wastes and refining of material for energy through breakdown of the materials
Endoplastic ReticulumEnables the cell to communicate with the extracellular environment and transfers food from one part of the cell to another
Golgi Apparatusunites large carbohydrate molecules and combines them with proteins to form glycoproteins; transports enzymes and hormones through the cell membrane so that they can exit the cell, enter the bloodstream, and be carried to areas of the body in which they are required
Mitochondiraproduce energy for cellular activity by breaking down nutrients through a process of oxidation
Lysosomesdispose of large particles such as bacteria and food as well as smaller particles; also contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down and digest proteins, certain carbohydrates and the cell itself if the lysosomes surrounding membrane breaks
Ribosomesmanufacture the various proteins that cells require
Centrosomesbelieved to play some part in the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division
DNAcontains the genetic material; controls cell division and multiplication and also biochemical reaction that occur within the living cell
Nucleolusholds a large amount of RNA