Cell Biology => Unit 3 Enzymes

path59's version from 2015-09-12 17:39

Section 1

Question Answer
What is an enzyme?a complex protein molecule that acts as a biological catalyst
Enzymes are made by the ________.cell
A _________ is a chemical substance that _______ up a chemical reactioncatalyst; speeds
What is a substratethe molecule or molecules that are there to begin with.
What is the product?the resulting molecule or molecules after a reaction occurs.
An enzyme has an ________ site, a place on it's structure that forms a natural fit for the two ________. active; reactants (enzymes)
Three important rules of enzymes:1) The reaction results are not changed, just the speed of the reaction 2) The enzyme itself is not changed by the reaction 3) Each specific type of enzyme catalyzes only one specific type of reaction
What is carbonic anhydrase?An enzyme that speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid (to allow faster removal of carbon dioxide from your body)
The enzyme that speeds up the break down of sucrose is?sucrase (sucrose ----> glucose + fructose [smaller sugars])
Two important points about enzymes are 1) without enzymes, reaction rates would be too ____ for anything to remain _________ 2) _________ makes the enzymesslow; alive; cells
What enzyme is needed to break apart milk sugar quickly?lactase

Section 2

Question Answer
3 factors that affect enzyme activity are:1) temperature 2) pH 3) inhibitors
In enzyme activity, the ________ the temperature, the ________ the chemical reaction. cooler; slower
In enzyme activity, with temperature ______ the reaction speed increases but after a certain point the enzyme starts to _______ ______ which is when a protein is said to have ______increase; break down; denatured
All enzymes have an ____________ temperature and pH.optimal
For most biological situations, the optimal pH will be reasonably close to the _______ of the scalemiddle
An enzyme found in the stomach is called _______ and is designed to work at a low pH of ___.pepsin; 2
The pH of the ________ has a significant impact on _________ activity.environment; enzyme
Sometimes, certain chemical substances will _______ a particular enzyme which means the substance __________ the enzyme and _______ it from doing what it does normally.inhibit; blocks; prevents
Inhibiting an enzyme means that it turns it _______. off:
An enzyme may be shut off or inhibited when 1) a cell wants to ____ ___ the operation of a specific enzyme, 2) an animal or plants may make an inhibitor to act on other organisms as a _________ 3) Some chemicals in mild doses can block the activity of an enzyme just enough to have a _______ _______ effect on the body.shut down; poison; positive medical
Almost all enzymes have names that end with _______.-ase