Every living cell has ______ material and contains a ____ that is used to make _______
genetic, code, proteins
What is a gene?
a portion of the DNA that codes for the production of a specific protein
For any given chromosome, there is a short portion that represents one _____.
DNA is constructed out of long chains of _______
Each nucleotide has 3 molecular components:
1) a phosphate group 2) a sugar 3) a nitrogenous base
In DNA, the sugar is ________ which is different the the sugar in RNA.
four different nitrogenous bases in DNA are:
A (adenine), G (guanine), C (cytosine), T (thymine)
DNA is built out of long chains of ________ that could be any of the 4 different ___________ _______
nucleotides, nitrogenous bases (A,G,C,T)
nucleotides always form _____
Nucleotides pairing: _________ always pairs with ___ and ___ always pairs with ___
A, T ; G, C
The steps of DNA replication:
1) the DNA is unzipped through use of a special enzyme cutting the bond between each complementary nucleotide 2) New nucleotides are brought in and bonded to the "exposed" nuclotides by nucleotides that are loose in the nucleus 3) two identical copies of the original DNA strand now exist (identical to the original and each other)
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA.
Steps in DNA Transcription:
1) a portion of the DNA is "unzipped" 2) One side of the DNA is used as a template for the formation of a new strand of RNA 3) RNA breaks away and can leave the nucleus (carrying the code to build one specific type of protein)
Steps in RNA Translation:
1) The RNA strand links up with a robosome (it figures out what chain of amino acids to build by the code on the RNA) 2) The ribosome "reads" the letter code to determine what type of amino acid is brought in by reading a 3 letter group of nucleotides 3) As each codon is read sequentially, a new amino acid is brought in and linked to the chain.
A grouping of 3 nucleotides read by the robosome is called _____ and specifies one of the twenty types of _____ _____.
a condon, amino acids
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