An organelles are small structures found within cells, with specific functions
The two broad categories of organelles are _____ & _____?
nonmembranous organelles & membranous organelles
Describe a nonmembranous organelle.
organelles that are not contructed from membrane... usually simpler and smaller
Describe a membranous organelle.
organelles that are constructed out of membrane - usually larger and more complex.
What is a Cytoskeleton (nonmembranous)?
A system of a wide variety of thin and flexible protein fibers within a cell that holds it all together
What is the function of the cytoskeleton fibers?
1) Help maintain the shape of the cell 2)anchor certain structures in place, and help to organize the internal environment, 3) because types of fibers can shorten, causing the cell to change shape, cause the cell itself to move or move smaller objects around within the cell
What is cilia (nonmembranous)?
long slender groups of bendable protein fibers that extend outward from the cell thus creating a wavelike movement.
What is the function of cilia?
1) used to move the entire cell (usually single-celled organisms) 2) move fluids or secretions across the cell surface
What is the function of ribosomes (nonmembranous)?
organelles responsible for protein synthesis. The actual place where amino acids are linked together to form a complex protein
What is the structure of ribosomes?
a small and simple organelle built with just two complex molecules linked together.
constructed of sheets of membranes that are "flattened pancakes"
Two functions of golgi apparatus (membranous).
1) modify molecules into special molecules (ex. protein combined with carbohydrates) 2) packaging and transport of molecules
Within golgi apparatus, how does packaging and transport work?
by concentrating a large number of molecules into a group and surrounding them with a small bit of membrane. That membrane will pinch off and become a secretory vesicle. The vesicle may travel to the plasma membrane, and the secretion may exit the cell via exocytosis.
Why are golgi apparati often found near ER?
the golgi apparati use the raw products from the endoplasmic reticulum.