Cell Biology => Unit 3 Cell Organelles

path59's version from 2015-09-10 16:25

Section 1

Question Answer
What is an organelle?An organelles are small structures found within cells, with specific functions
The two broad categories of organelles are _____ & _____?nonmembranous organelles & membranous organelles
Describe a nonmembranous organelle.organelles that are not contructed from membrane... usually simpler and smaller
Describe a membranous organelle.organelles that are constructed out of membrane - usually larger and more complex.
What is a Cytoskeleton (nonmembranous)?A system of a wide variety of thin and flexible protein fibers within a cell that holds it all together
What is the function of the cytoskeleton fibers?1) Help maintain the shape of the cell 2)anchor certain structures in place, and help to organize the internal environment, 3) because types of fibers can shorten, causing the cell to change shape, cause the cell itself to move or move smaller objects around within the cell
What is cilia (nonmembranous)?long slender groups of bendable protein fibers that extend outward from the cell thus creating a wavelike movement.
What is the function of cilia?1) used to move the entire cell (usually single-celled organisms) 2) move fluids or secretions across the cell surface
What is the function of ribosomes (nonmembranous)?organelles responsible for protein synthesis. The actual place where amino acids are linked together to form a complex protein
What is the structure of ribosomes?a small and simple organelle built with just two complex molecules linked together.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the function of the nucleus (membranous)?Most prominent structure in the cell. It is the control center of the cell.
The outer border of the nucleus is composed of the _______.nuclear envelope
What is the structure of the nuclear envelope?made out of double membrane (like plasma membrane) one on top of the other.
What exists in the envelope?nuclear pores
What are nuclear pores?pores big enough to allow certain molecules to freely travel into and out of the nucleus
What two molecules are found inside the nucleus?DNA (genetic info) & RNA (transfer instructions)
What is the structure of golgi apparatus? : constructed of sheets of membranes that are "flattened pancakes"
Question Answer
Why are golgi apparati often found near ER?the golgi apparati use the raw products from the endoplasmic reticulum.
The structure of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (membranous)a large amount of flattened, folded sheets of membrane that are stacked in many layers. Connected to the nuclear envelope.
Two major functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).1) the synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids (synthesis factories) 2) detoxification
Two distinct types of endoplasmic reticulum.1) rough ER - lots of ribosomes present; large protein factory 2) smooth ER - no ribosomes; manufactores lipides and carbohydrates and involved in detoxification and storage

Section 4

Question Answer
What is the structure of golgi apparatus?constructed of sheets of membranes that are "flattened pancakes"
Two functions of golgi apparatus (membranous).1) modify molecules into special molecules (ex. protein combined with carbohydrates) 2) packaging and transport of molecules
Within golgi apparatus, how does packaging and transport work?by concentrating a large number of molecules into a group and surrounding them with a small bit of membrane. That membrane will pinch off and become a secretory vesicle. The vesicle may travel to the plasma membrane, and the secretion may exit the cell via exocytosis.
Why are golgi apparati often found near ER?the golgi apparati use the raw products from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Section 5

Question Answer
Structure of lysosomes (membranous)membrane-bound sacs that contain digestive enzymes (cells "stomach" or recycling center)
How does recycling work in the lysosome?the lysosome fuses with an objects to be recycled, or a vesicle that contains something to be digested. Powerful enzymes within break down the substance.
2 Functions of lysosomes:1) recycles old and worn out cellular organelles 2) digest or destroy objects brought into the cell (food, bacteria)

Section 6

Question Answer
Structure of mitochrondia (membranous)?look like jelly beans; two membranes one surrounding organelle & other large, complex folding membrane to perform aerobic respiration
Function of mitochrondia:Take raw fuel molecules (like glucose) and break them down to produce ATP molecules, which are released into the cell protoplasm.
What do ATP molecules carry?little bits of energy for use throughout the cell.

Section 7

Question Answer
Where are chloroplast cells found?Only in plants
Function of chloroplast?site of photosynthesis - plants use sunlight to build large energy molecules, like sugar, requiring the presence of chloroplasts.
All living cells, have a cell membrane, protoplasm, and some sort of genetic material but they do not contain _____ ______?All the organelles that exist (ex humans don't have chloroplasts)