Metabolism refers to the _______ ________ that allow a cell to ______ ______ from its surroundings and use that energy to _______, _____ and _________.
biochemical reactions; extract energy; maintain itself, grow, and reproduce
Examples of energy used by a cell:
cell movement synthesis of proteins, cell division, construction of new organelles, transport of substances through the cell membrane, synthesis of secretions, recycling, detoxification
Metabolic reactions are controlled by _________. Metabolic reactions are organized into _________
enzymes (cells choose or don't choose to make the enzymes that will catalyze the reactions they want to occur rapidly); pathways ( very often, the product of one reaction is needed to be the substrate for another reaction, and so on.)
Two categories of metabolic reactions:
1) catabolism 2) Anabolism
catabolism is what?
breakdown of molecules to release energy (when the bonds of molecules with stored energy are broken down, the energy is released)
How catabolism occurs:
1) large, energy-rich molecules are broken down 2)energy is released
Anabolism involves what?
the use of energy to build complex molecules
Anabolism summarized is:
1) larger molecules are synthesized 2) energy is required
ATP stands for:
ATP molecule is useful and readily available - is like a little ______ with what attached to it's structure?
When one of the ______ groups is broken free from an ATP , it _____ a discreet bit of _______
phosphate, releases, energy
Once the ATP loses it's ______ (energy store) the molecule becomes ____.
ADP stands for what?
What organelle is the power plants that perpetually recharges ADP to form new ATP?
Important note: The ultimate source for all energy used by living things is the ____.
sun ( plants create energy-rich molecules like glucose [anabolism] and humans eat plants, and use those molecules for our own energy needs [catabolism])
Cellular respiration is what?
the process of releasing chemical-bond energy from nutrient molecules. (cells start with food molecules and end up with charged ATP molecules
The equation for cellular respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --→ 6CO2 + 6H2O (no subscript)
Name the three stages of cellular respiration:
1) glycolysis 2) TCA Cycle (Krebs Cycle) 2) Electron Transport System
Summarization of Glycolysis:
1) Glucose is split in half, forming two pyruvic acid molecules 2) Energy is released, and it is used to produce a few ATP molecules 3) Free hydrogens are released, and picked up by hydrogen carriers (not used here) 4) oxygen is not required in this stage 5) this can occur anywhere in the cell and does not require the presence of mitochondria
Summarization of The TCA Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
Pyruvic acid is broken down until nothing is left but carbon dioxide 2) Energy is released, and it is used to produce more ATP molecules 3) More free hydrogens are released, and picked up by hydrogen carriers (not used here) 4) Mitochondria must be present for this stage to occur!
What goes in and and what comes out in Glycolysis?
glucose ---> ATP, free hydrogens, pyruvic
What goes in and and what comes out in the TCA Cycle?