Cell Biology => Unit 3 Cell Metabolism and Respiration

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Section 1

Question Answer
Metabolism refers to the _______ ________ that allow a cell to ______ ______ from its surroundings and use that energy to _______, _____ and _________.biochemical reactions; extract energy; maintain itself, grow, and reproduce
Examples of energy used by a cell:cell movement synthesis of proteins, cell division, construction of new organelles, transport of substances through the cell membrane, synthesis of secretions, recycling, detoxification
Metabolic reactions are controlled by _________. Metabolic reactions are organized into _________enzymes (cells choose or don't choose to make the enzymes that will catalyze the reactions they want to occur rapidly); pathways ( very often, the product of one reaction is needed to be the substrate for another reaction, and so on.)
Two categories of metabolic reactions:1) catabolism 2) Anabolism
catabolism is what?breakdown of molecules to release energy (when the bonds of molecules with stored energy are broken down, the energy is released)
How catabolism occurs:1) large, energy-rich molecules are broken down 2)energy is released
Anabolism involves what?the use of energy to build complex molecules
Anabolism summarized is:1) larger molecules are synthesized 2) energy is required
ATP stands for:adenosine triphosphate
ATP molecule is useful and readily available - is like a little ______ with what attached to it's structure?rechargeable battery; 3 phosphate units

Section 2

Question Answer
When one of the ______ groups is broken free from an ATP , it _____ a discreet bit of _______phosphate, releases, energy
Once the ATP loses it's ______ (energy store) the molecule becomes ____.phosphate; ADP
ADP stands for what?adenosine diphosphate
What organelle is the power plants that perpetually recharges ADP to form new ATP?mitochondria
Important note: The ultimate source for all energy used by living things is the ____. sun ( plants create energy-rich molecules like glucose [anabolism] and humans eat plants, and use those molecules for our own energy needs [catabolism])
Cellular respiration is what?the process of releasing chemical-bond energy from nutrient molecules. (cells start with food molecules and end up with charged ATP molecules
The equation for cellular respiration:C6H12O6 + 6O2 --→ 6CO2 + 6H2O (no subscript)


Question Answer
Name the three stages of cellular respiration:1) glycolysis 2) TCA Cycle (Krebs Cycle) 2) Electron Transport System
Glycolysis meansglucose splitting
Summarization of Glycolysis:1) Glucose is split in half, forming two pyruvic acid molecules 2) Energy is released, and it is used to produce a few ATP molecules 3) Free hydrogens are released, and picked up by hydrogen carriers (not used here) 4) oxygen is not required in this stage 5) this can occur anywhere in the cell and does not require the presence of mitochondria
Summarization of The TCA Cycle (Krebs Cycle)Pyruvic acid is broken down until nothing is left but carbon dioxide 2) Energy is released, and it is used to produce more ATP molecules 3) More free hydrogens are released, and picked up by hydrogen carriers (not used here) 4) Mitochondria must be present for this stage to occur!
What goes in and and what comes out in Glycolysis?glucose ---> ATP, free hydrogens, pyruvic
What goes in and and what comes out in the TCA Cycle?pyruvic acid ----> ATP, free hydrogens, carbon dioxide
What goes in and and what comes out in the electron transport system?oxygen ---> ATP, water

Section 3

Question Answer
When all three stages of cellular respiration occurs with the use of oxygen it is called:aerobic respiration (mitochondria must be present)
When no oxygen is used in cellular respiration this is known as:anaerobic respiration (mitochondria not necessary)
Anaerobic respiration is only what stage of cellular respiration?the first stage ---> glycolysis
Aerobic respiration is ____ efficient and produces about _________ ATP per glucose molecule.more, 36
anaerobic respiration (fermentation) is _____ efficient and produces about _________ ATP per glucose molecule.less, 2
Most _____ cells, most of the time, use _____ respirationaerobic
most of the time, _____ use anaerobic respiration.bacteria, anaerobic
Yeast cells use ______ respiration to form _____anaerobic, alcohol
Human muscle cells normally use ____ respiration, but sometime ______respirationaerobic, anaerobic respiration
When muscles are very active there is not enough _____ so they switch to ______ respiration of which ____ ____ is a byproduct.oxygen, anaerobic, lactic acid
Metabolism of Carbohydrates is when simple sugars are converted to _____.glucose
Metabolism of Proteins occurs when proteins are broken down into _____ _____, which are converted into molecules that can be used in the _______ _______.amino acids, TCA Cycle
Metabolism of Lipids: Lipids are broken down into _____ _____, which are converted to molecules that can be plugged into the _______ ______fatty acids, TCA Cycle