Cell Biology Terms

chichi's version from 2015-07-08 19:32

Basic Biology Terms

Question Answer
cytosolcontents of the main compartment of the cytoplasm, excluding membrane-enclosed organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria
cytoplasmcontents of a cell that are contained within its plasma membrane but, in the case eukaryotic cells, outside the nucleus
mitochondriamembrane-enclosed organelle, about the size of a bacterium, that carries out oxidative phosphorylation and procedures most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells
nucleusthe major organelle of a eukaryotic cell, which contains DNA organized into chromosomes. Also referring to an atom, the central mass, built from neutrons and protons
chloroplastspecialized organelle in algae and plants that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place
lysosomesintracellular membrane-enclosed organelle containing digestive enzymes, typically the most active at the acid pH found in these organelles
chromosomeslong threadlike structure composed of DNA and associated proteins that carries the genetic information of an organism.
chromosomesVisible during meiosis and mitosis
golgi apparatusmembrane-enclosed organelle in eukaryotic cells where the proteins and lipids made in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and sorted for transport to other sites
Camillo Golgidiscovered the organelle golgi appartus
peroxisomessmall membrane-enclosed organelle that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize organic molecules.
peroxisomescontains some enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide and others that degrade hydrogen
plasma membranethe membrane that surrounds a living cell
endoplasmic recticulumlabyrinthine, membrane-enclosed compartment in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, where lipids and secreted and membrane-bound proteins are made
cytoskeletonsystem of protein filaments in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell shape and the capacity for directed movement
cytoskeletonIts most abundant components are actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments

Eukaryotic Cell