Cell Biology - Chapter 3

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Question Answer
Chemicals reactions carried out by living systems depend on the ability of some organisms to capture and use atoms from nonliving sources in the environment. The specific subset of these reactions that breakdown nutrients in food can be described as _____________________catabolic
The second law of thermodynamics states that the disorder in any system is always increasing. In simple terms, you can think about dropping NaCl crystals into a glass of water. The solvation and diffusion of ions is favored because there is an increase in __________________entropy
The energy used by the cell to generate specific biological molecules and highly ordered structures is stored in the form of __________________chemical bonds
At first glance, it may seem that living systems are able to defy the second law of thermodynamics. However, on closer examination it becomes clear that although cells create organization from raw materials in the environment, they also contribute to disorder in the environment by releasing__________________heat
If you weight yourself on a scale one morning then eat four pounds of food during the day, will you weigh four pounds more the next morning? Why or why not? cellular respiration
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total amount of energy in the Universe does not changefalse
The ultimate source of energy for living systems is chlorophyllfalse
CO2 gas is fixed in a series of reactions that are light-dependentfalse
H2 is the most stable and abundant form of hydrogen in the environmentfalse
During the respiration, energy is retrieved from the high-energy bonds found in certain organic molecules. Which of the following, addition to energy, are the ultimate products of respiration?CO2, H2O
Oxidation is the process by which oxygen atoms are added to a target molecule. Generally, the atom that is oxidized will experience which of the following with respect to the electrons in its outer shell?a net loss
When elemental sodium is added to water, the sodium atoms ionize spontaneously. Uncharged Na becomes Na+. This means that the Na atoms have beenoxidized
Oxidation and reduction states are relatively easy to determine for metal ions, because there is a measurable net charge. In the case of carbon compounds, the following is the best way to describe these types of bond?unequal sharing of electrons across a covalent bond
Chemical reactions that lead to a release of free energy are referred to "energetically favorable." Another common way in which these reactions are described is_________________________spontaneous
Catalyst are molecules that lower the activation energy for a given reaction. Cells produce their own catalysts called____________________.enzymes
Enzymes lower the free energy released by the reaction that they facilitate
Enzymes lower the activation energy for a specific reaction
Enzymes increase the probability that any given reactant molecule will be converted to product
Enzymes increase the average energy of reactant molecules
Change of G measures the change of free energy in a system as it converts reactant (Y) into product (X). When [Y] = [X], change of G is equal to Change of G^o
The potential energy stored in high-energy bonds is commonly harnessed when the bonds are split by the addition of ___________________ in a process called ____________________water,hydrolysis