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CC Nov 2017 Mediterranean Diet

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echoecho's version from 2017-11-27 15:00

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Question Answer
Why has there been a great deal of interest in the Mediterranean diet as a more effective alternative for CVD risk and weight reduction?For many years a low-fat, low cholesterol diet has been touted as the best diet for CVD risk reduction. As a result the total fat intake in the American diet has decreased, but the carbohydrate intake has increased with an associated increase in obesity and impaired glucose tolerance
Is there evidence for dietary cholesterol increasing because of egg intake?Evidence is weak
*** What is the result of the primary prevention study in 2013 that placed 7,447 patients on 1 of 3 diets (Mediterranean supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, Mediterranean supplemented with mixed nuts and a control group given a low fat diet?There was a decrease in CVD risk for the Mediterranean diet
List the foods that must be eaten at every meal to follow a Mediterranean diet?1) fruits and vegetables 2) grains (mostly whole) 3) beans, nuts, legumes, seeds 4) olive oil 5) spices (not salt)
List the foods that must be eaten often (at least 2 times a week)?1) fish 2) seafood
List the foods that include moderate portions (daily to weekly)?1) poultry 2) eggs 3) cheese 4) yogurt
List the foods that are to be eating infrequently (few times a month)?1) meats 2) sweets
In the Mediterranean diet, the type of fat is important, explain?the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Use of olive and canola oils are encouraged. Eliminate trans fats and saturated fats. Plant-based foods are emphasized and animal-based proteins are eaten in moderation (with red meat limited more than fish an poultry). Red wine is allowed in moderate amounts
Comment on exercise for the primary prevention of CVD?1) weight loss through caloric expenditure and lowering BP, helps glucose utilization and promotes positive changes in lipid profiles (lowers Tgl and increases HDL) though effects on total and LDL cholesterol are more variable. 2) 30-60 minutes of exercise 4-6 times per week lifelong
Comment of how to evaluate the adequacy of exercise?is based on breathlessness, fatigue and sweating, NOT target heart rate
What were the results of a 10 year observational study of 10,000 veterans with dyslipidemia and their use of statins and exercise?1) statin use and exercise were both independently associated with lower mortality in patients 2) combination of exercise and statin use lowered risk for the most (highly fit, on statin) 3) just exercising and being highly fit resulted in better results than being least fit and on a statin or moderately fit and on a statin
*** SUMMARY = What does the Mediterranean diet emphasize in way of diet?1) fruits and vegetables 2) fish and olive oil 3) minimizes red meat intake 4) allows wine in moderate amounts
*** SUMMARY = What interventions are one of the mainstays of CV risk prevention and treatment?dietary interventions
*** SUMMARY = Looking at diet in its entirety can be an effective way to approach the cardio protective benefits of diet, true or false?true
*** SUMMARY = True or false? While research shows that the Mediterranean diet can be adhered to for years at a time and has long-term benefits, research is only recently emerging that shows similar benefits in non-Mediterranean cultures such as the United Kingdom and the US?true
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