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CC Nov 2015 Human metapneumovirus (HMPV)

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echoecho's version from 2015-11-06 13:59

Section

Question Answer
HMPV was identified in 2001 as an etiology for what?acute and lower respiratory infections
Signs and symptms of HMPV infection are often indistinguishable from other viral infections, with presentation in children most often mimicking?RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)
What other medical conditions ay children experience with HMPV?1) conjunctivitis 2) OM
Nearly 100% of children are seropositive for HMPV by age ___ years, but the immune response is incomplete and reinfection is common, especially in those with what?1) 5 2) chronic illness and impaired immunity
Adult patients experience what symptoms? Compare the fever in adults and children?1) purulent cough, wheezing, pneumonia 2) low grade in adults but markedly elevated in children
HMPV infection is most often self-limited but may lead to more severe disease in patients with what conditiions?1) children with underlying pulmonary disease 2) in immunocompromised individuals 3) patients > 65 years of age 4) adults with COPD or CHF
Complications include what?1) pneumonia 2) secondary bacterial infection 3) exacerbations of underlying pulmonary diseae (asthma, COPD) 4) death
Diagnosis of HMPV is most often suspected on _____ grounds?clinical
Like influenza and RSV, HMPV is most prevalent during what parts of the year?1) late winter 2) early spring
What lab test can be used to confirm infection and maybe useful to identify outbreaks in the community (nursing homes) or to help direct therapy in the seriously ill?Reverse transcriptase polymerase change reaction (PCR) assay
*** Treatment of HPMV is primarily what? Patients with underlying pulmonary diseaes should receive what two treatments?1) supportive 2) bronchodilators and close monitoring
***Hospitalization may be required if what 3 things are needed?1) supplemental oxygen 2) IV fluids 3) aggressive pulmonary toilet
***Although the combination of what two drugs has shown promise in the treatment of HPMV, its expense, and the fact most infections are self-limited should restrict this therapy to the critically ill?aerosolized and oral ribavirin with polyclonal IV immune globulin (IVIG)
*** True or false? Oral ribavirin and osltamivir (Tamiflu) are currently recommended for the treatment of HMPV?false
Secondary bacterial and fungal infections may develop in HMPV infection, especilaly in those with underlying _____ disease?cardiopulmonary diseae
Name a significant secondary infection that can contribute to hospitalization and death?Streptococcus pneumoniae
Patients who develop secondary pneumococcal infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotics. Can prophylactic treatment with antibiotics (Azithromycin) be indicated?no
What immunization can be helpful to reduce secondary pneumococcal infection in patients with HMPV?pneumococcal
Is there a vaccine for HMPV today?no
What precautions would be helpful to prevent the spread of the infection?droplet precautions
*** SUMMARY = Signs and symptoms of HMPV infection are often indistinguishable from other infections, with presentation in children most often mimicking what other disease?RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)
*** SUMMARY = HMPV is most prevalent at what time of the year?1) late winter 2) early spring
*** SUMMARY = HMPV infection is most often self-limited but may lead to more severe disease in what patient types? 1) children with underlying pulmonary diseae 2) in immunocompromised patients 3) patients > 65 years of age 4) adult patients with COPD 5) adult patients with CHF
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