CC March 2017 Glaucoma

echoecho's version from 2018-04-12 02:56


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Question Answer
In normal eyes, the _____ body continuously produces _____ ______, that flows through the pupil into the anterior chamber and drains through the _______ network into _______ canal and the venous system?1) ciliary 2) aqueous humor 3) trabecular 4) Schlemm's canal
Normal resistance to flow through the trabecular network and Schlemm's canal results in physiologic ______ ______?intraocular pressure
When the ______ to flow is increased, the intraocular pressure increases as well?resistance
Define glaucoma?there is impaired outflow of the aqueous humor resulting in increased intraocular pressure, compromising blood flow to the retina and resulting in vision loss
List the 2 types of glaucoma?1) open-angle 2) acute angle-closure (the angle is the junction of the iris and cornea
It is estimated that _____ million Americans have glaucoma, although more than ____ of the cases are undiagnosed or untreated?2; half
Glaucoma is common among all groups and is the leading cause of IRREVERSIBLE vision loss and blindness among what two ethnic groups, accounting for about one-quarter of all cases in the population? 1) Hispanic 2) African American
What is the annual cost associated with glaucoma?exceeds $748 million
What type of glaucoma is the most common type, accounting for 90% of all cases?open-angle glaucoma
What is the cause of open-angle glaucoma?it is due to dysfunction of the aqueous drainage resulting in a gradual increase in intraocular pressure
Describe the presentation of open-angle glaucoma?it is insidious, bilateral and asymptomatic
List the other risk factors for open-angle glaucoma?1) advancing age 2) ocular trauma 3) uveitis 4) diabetes 5) use of topical steroids, both in and around the eye
Has systemic use of steroids been associated with glaucoma?yes
What is the funduscopic exam of open-angle glaucoma?( 1) symmetrically enlarged cup-to-disc ratio of > 0.5 ( 2) temporal pallor of the optic nerve
What is the treatment for open angle glaucoma?use of eye drops to reduce the intraocular pressure = First line treatment includes PROSTAGLANDIN ANALOGUES such as bimatoprost (Lumigan) and latanoprost (Xalatan). Other topical medications include = alpha-adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, cholinergics
In many cases, meds from _____ classes are needed to reduce intraocular pressure?multiple
*** What is associated with improved outcomes for open-angle glaucoma?1) early dx 2) early treatment
What treatment is indicated if loss of vision progresses despite maximal medical therapy?surgery
In contrast to open-angle glaucoma, the less common closed-angle glaucoma is an ocular ________ that must be promptly identified to preserve vision?emergency
What is closed-angle glaucoma caused by?an acute obstruction of the outflow of the aqueous humor, resulting in a more abrupt rise in intraocular pressure
List the risk factors for acute closed-angle glaucoma?1) anterior placement of lens 2) significant hyperopia 3) significant myopia 4) shallow anterior chamber
The use of medications that cause what may precipitate an attack in at-risk patients, including antihistamines, adrenergic medications and anticholinergics?meds that cause DILATION of the pupil
List other risk factors?advancing age and genetic factors
During an attack, patients report what? What causes this?halos or rainbows around lights due to distortion of light through an edematous cornea
Patients complain of ______ eye pain and associated symptoms such as what?1) unilateral 2) nausea, vomiting, headache
Exam will show whatconjunctiva are injected, the cornea is cloudy, the pupil is MID-DILATED and SLUGGISHLY reactive to light
What is essential for treatment if acute angle closure glaucoma is suspected?urgent opthalmology evaluation and treatment
*** True or false. Currently, the USPSTF states that there is insufficient evidence of the potential risks and benefits to recommend screening average-risk individuals for glaucoma?true
*** SUMMARY = What is glaucoma?it is a conditions in which impaired outflow of aqueous humor results in increased intraocular pressure, compromising blood flow to the retina and resulting in vision loss
*** SUMMARY = Which of the two types of glaucoma is the most common type and what are the s/s initially? What is the treatment?1) open-angle glaucoma 2) initially asymptomatic 3) medical
*** SUMMARY = What does acute, closed angel glaucoma present with as of s/s? What is the treatment to avoid permanent vision loss?1) pain and constitutional symptoms 2) prompt referral and therapy are essential
*** SUMMARY = USPSTF states that there is ______ evidence of the potential risks and benefits to recommend screening average-risk individuals for glaucoma?insufficient