CC March 2017 Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

echoecho's version from 2017-06-27 02:41


Question Answer
Define acute or flash pulmonary edema?It is the rapid accumulation of fluid into the alveoli due to an imbalance in nforces that govern the exchange between the capillary microcirculation and the interstitial fluid
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema results from an increase in ____-____ pressure, resulting in high pulmonary capillary pressure that can be estimated by what?1) end-disastolic 2) pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
In contrast, non-cardiogenic etiologies cause accumulation of what in the alveoli from other sources?protein and fluid
Patients present with a sudden onset of progressive shortness of breath and evidence of ____ (edema, pulmonary congestion/edema), sometimes in the absence of known cardiac disease?CHF
List the noncardiac causes of pulmonary edema?1) respiratory distress syndrome 2) pulmonary embolism 3) renal artery stenosis 4) high-altitude pulmonary edema 5) narcotic overdose 6) volume overload (post transfusion or other) 7) severe pre-eclampsia
List the cardiac causes of pulmonary edema?1) HTNsive crisis 2) acute coronary ischemia 3) acute mitral valve regurgitation 4) acute aortic valve regurgitation 5) acute aortic dissection, Takotsubo (stress-induced cardiomyopathy)
Initial evaluation of acute-onset pulmonary edema should include what?physical and history
In the absence of s/s of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (fever, coagulopathy, high-altitude exposure, pregnancy, opioid use), what etiologies for flash pulmonary edema should be considered?cardiogenic
What is suggestive of valvular disease or aortic dissection?1) normal or low BP 2) normal EKG 3) normal cardiac enzymes
What s/s make dissection less likely?1) lack of risk factors for aortic dissection (HTN or valvular disease 2) absence of chest pain 3) normal peripheral pulses
What is the initial management of flash pulmonary edema?1) oxygenation 2) fluids 3) inotropic agents for hypotension 4) BP management in cases of hypertensive crisis and diuresis
What may be necessary for extreme cases of cardiogenic flash pulmonary edema