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CC July 2018 Anosmia

echoecho's version from 2018-09-04 06:09


Question Answer
Define anosmia?complete loss of smell
Define hyposmia?reduction in the ability to smell or discern odors
List the 3 mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction?1) conductive pathology (pathology in the nasal passages to the olfactory epithelium) 2) sensorineural disorders of the olfactory neuroepithelium 3) patology of the brain centers associated with interpretation of odors
List the causes of anosmia?1) head trauma 2) sinonasal disease 3) upper respiratory infections 4) congenital disorders
Anosmia affects what % of the general population?4-6%
List the causes of hyposmia?central nervous degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease adn Parkinson's disease as well as a normal part of normal aging process
The prevalence of hyposmia increases with age, affecting up to ____% of the population over the age of 80?60%
Why can anosmia be potentially dangerous?may not be able to detect signs of potential danger (spoiled food, fire, or a natural gas leak)
Why is loss of smell associated w/ a reduction in quality of life?because individuals can't enjoy aromas or food flavors
In patients with anosmia, what should evaluation start with?a careful hx and physical exam
Patients experiencing anosmia after head trauma have a ______ outcome than those w/ anosmia secondary to conductive or sensorineural etiologies?poorer
Anosmia and hyposmia caused by developmental abnormalities in the olfactory bulbs are associated with what disorders?hypothalamic disorders (including delayed pubert and hypogonadism)
The presence of anosmia or hyposmia should be tested using _____ scents that are detected by the olfactory nerve and not with irritants (alcohol or ether) detected by the ______ nerve?pure; trigeminal nerve
*** Any complaint of olfactory dysfunction should be evaluated utilizing either the University of _______ Smell Indentification Test (UPSIT) or the Snifflin' test. ?Pennsylvania
*** What two tests could help to confirm olfactory disorders when odor tests are equivocal?1) odor event-related potentials 2) electroolfactogram
*** Careful examination of the nose, sinuses and upper respiratory tract may help to identify what?potentially reversible causes of anosmia
*** If evaluation of the nose and sinuses is suggestive of infectious, obstructive or inflammatory disease, what study should be obtained?CT of the sinuses and nasal passage
*** The MRI of the brain should not be used as a general screening test unless there are what?presence of neurologic findings
*** Specific lab tests (like Vit B12 level) should be based on _____ factors or s/s of specific disorders?risk
*** SUMMARY = Anosmia is usually the result of what? head trauma, sinonasal disease, upper respiratory infections or congenital disorders
*** SUMMARY = Hyposmia may be due to what?central nervous degenerative disease (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), as well as a normal part of aging process
*** SUMMARY = Testing for loss of smell utilizes purely olofactory scents, avoiding irritants such as alcohol or ether (these are detected via the what nerve)?trigeminal
*** SUMMARY = Careful ear,nose throat and neurological evaluations are important to identify the cause of the disorder, true or false?true