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CC Jan 2018 Nutritional Antioxidants

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echoecho's version from 2018-01-14 14:32

Section

Question Answer
What results from free radicals and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, neurological disorders including PArkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, cataracts and age-related macular degeneration?oxidative stress
Free radicals may result from what?1) exerise 2) digestion of foods 3) external exposures (cigarettes, air pollution, ultraviolet radiation)
What 2 things contain several antioxidant agents (vit A, C, E, selenium, carotenoids, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) that may reduce oxidative stress and its impact on disease developement and progression?fruits and vegetables
Based on these findings, what have amny adults initiated?antioxidant supplementation to prevent disease
In general, have antioxidant supplementation been shown to prevent or slow the progression of disease, with the exceptio nof age-related macular degeneration?no
*** The use of what supplementats have been shown to slow the progression of AMD, but not to reduce the incidence of cataract formation?1) multivitamin 2) vit C 3) vitamin E 4) beta-carotene
*** Do supplements containing lutein and zeaxanthin appear to have effect on AMD progression?no
Does taking vitamin E or beta-carotene or vit C and multivitamins prevent or delay theonset of AMD?no
Use of antioxidants can sometime INCREASE the incidence of disese, most notably, an increase in the risk of lung cancer and prostate cancer?the use of antioxidants has shown to increase disease
Examples of above is?1) increase in risk of lung cancer in smokers who take high-dose beta carotene supplementation 2)increases riskk of prostate cancer with high dose vit E supplementation (increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage)
Meta-analysis indicates overall mortablity may increase with the use what vit?vit A and vit E
Patients should be encouraged to consume recommended servings of ____ and _____ to prevent disease and promote disease control?1) vegetables 2) fruits
Why are naturally occurring antioxidants more effective than supplemental formulations?because it is thought that fruits and vegetables may contain more forms of antioxidants (multiple forms of vit E vs. one supplemental form) and contain optimal combinations of the antioxidants
Fruit provides what additional benefit?fiber
Other than in age-related macular degeneration, why should patients not be directed to utilizing anti-oxidant supplements as replacement for healthy dietary habits?do not provide any additional benefit
***SUMMARY = Diets rich in fruits and vegetables containing natural antioxidants are healthy and may lower risk of disease, however is it clear that the antioxidant components in such foods are the key to these benefits?no
*** SUMMARY = Studies of dietary supplements containing antioxidants fail to show what?benefits in preventing or delaying the onset of disease, with limited exceptions
*** SUMMARY = Give examples of a vitamin that in high doses may be harmful?vit E, beta-carotene
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