CC Jan 2018 Low Bone Density and Osteoporosis

echoecho's version from 2018-03-20 04:49


Question Answer
Based on data from NHANES 2005-2010 of adults > ___ years of age, the prevalence of osteoporosis is ____% and the prevalence of low bone density is _____%?50; 10.3%; 43.9%
Based on an estimated 100 million adults in this age group, this translates to ____ million older adults with osteoporosis and ____ million with low bone mass?10.2; 43.4
The majority of these are non- Hispanic white (7.7 million with osteoporosis and 33.8% with low bone density), but other racial /ethnic groups and men are also affected, true or false?True
It is estimated that ___% of individuals > 50 years of age are at risk for an osteoporotic fracture50%
Osteoporosis and low bone density are assoced with increased risk of what?Fracture (vertebral, nonvertebral and hip)
These fractures can be associated with what?Pain, disability and significant alteration in functioning
A recent review of 38 studies showed the following outcomes following a hip fracture, what % of each?1) recovery to prefracture level of mobility (40-60%) 2) attainment of prefracture level of independence for basic activities of daily living (40-70%) 3) institutionalization following hip fracture (10-20%)
Prevention of osteoporosis includes maximizing ____ bone mass, particularly during the bone-forming years (______)?Peak; adolescence
Adequate intake of _____ and ______ optimally from a varied diet, is important?Calcium; vit D
In the case of inadequate dietary intake, supplements can be used, but have the skeletal benefits been demonstrated?No
Is there some evidence that carbonated beverages may impair bone formation?Yes
______ bearing physical activity aids in bone accumulation?Weight
Cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption (the latter being a more pronounced risk factor for what gender, can decrease bone mineral density?Men
List some meds that also adversely affect bone mass?Corticosteroids, anticonvulsants
The USPSTF recommends (grade B) screening women > ____ years of age for osteoporosis as well as women < _____ years of age whose fracture risk is > _____ y.o white women with no risk factors?65; 65; 65
Risk of fracture can be estimated using an assessment tole such as?FRAX
What imaging study is used to determine bone mineral density?A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
Persons found to have low BMD should make what change?lifestyle changes
Persons with osteoporosis or low BMD with risk factors for fracture or further loss (corticosteroid use), several medications have indications for _______ and/or _____?prevention; treatment
List the classifications of pharmacology agents to treat osteoporosis?1) biphosphonates 2) Denosumab (Prolia) 3) Selective estrogen-receptor modulators 4) Teriparatide (Fortea) 5) estrogen 6) calcitonin (generic Miacalcin)
In the biphosphonate classification, list the 4 agents?1) alendronate (Fosamax) 2) Risedronate (Actonel) 3) Zoledronic acid (Reclast) 4) Ibandronate (Bonita)
The biphosphonates help with preventing vertebral fx, nonvertebral fx, hip fx, which biphosphonate does not prevent nonvertebral fracture and hip fracture?Ibandronate (Bonita)
What are the adverse effects of biphosphonates?rare incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw; risk of atypical femur fractures that increases with duration of use; upper gastrointestinal symptoms and esophagits. Zoledronic acid associated with hypocalciemia and the like symptoms
Give comments regarding biphosphonates?Ibandronate not recommended due to the lack of evidence of benefit for nonvertebral and hip fractuers