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CC Jan 2018 Dietary Fat Recommendations

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echoecho's version from 2018-01-14 14:26

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Question Answer
In 2017, the AHA released what and why?1) advisory regarding dietary fats and CVD 2)CVD is the leading cause of death (1.73 million deaths annually), any preventive intervention, even if it results in a small percentage reduction in CVD, will have a significant impact in terms of numbers of individuals affected and associated cost
Although it is a common belief that dietary fat should be minimized to prevent "clogging" of the arteries, what is the main fact to know?The type of fat that affects the risk of CVD
True or false? In fact, the advisory states that "reduction in total dietary fat, or a goal for total fat intake is not recommended"?True
What are trans fats?Produced by hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils, converting them to a semi-solid state that is more stable and less likely to become rancid
Has the FDA found trans fats to safe, if not what are they doing about it?1) no 2) have companies remove artificial trans fats from their products
What type of cholesterol is increased when trans fats are eaten? Are trans fats associated with an increased risk of CVD?1) LDL 2) yes
*** What is the most important conclusions of the advisory?Replacing saturated fat from animal proteins with polyunsaturated fat from vegetables lowers CVD by about 30%, which is equivalent to statin use
List the other conclusions by the advisory?1) lower intake of saturated fat with higher intake of mono and polyunsaturated fat will lead to lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality 2) saturated fat increases LDL cholesterol while replacement with mono and polyunsaturated fats lowers LDL 3) polyunsaturated fat from vegetable oil decreases CVD more than monounsaturated fats 4) reducing total dietary fat, including saturated fat and replacing it with unspecified carbohydrates does not prevent CVD
True or false? Replacing saturated fats with protein, particularly plant protein may decrease CVD?True
In 2017 an editorial in the British Journal of Sports Medicine took an opposing view stating that saturated fats are NOT the culprits in CVD. The medical community responded that the authors of the article did not adequately address the limitations of their study. What were these authors findings?That there was no association of saturated fat consumption and all cause mortality, CVD, CVD mortality, ischemic stroke and type 2 DM in healthy adults. 2) CVD is a chronic inflammatory condition that can be "reduced effectively by walking 22 minutes a day and eating real foods"
List examples of foods with high concentration of unsaturated fats (monounsaturated fats)?Olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, pecans), seeds (pumpkin, sesame), avocado
List examples of foods with high concentration of unsaturated fats (polyunsaturated)?Sunflower, corn flaxseed, soybean oils, walnuts, flaxseed, fish, canola oil (higher concentration of monounsaturated fats, but still a good source of polyunsaturated fat), "vegetable oil" is often a combination of the oils listed above
List examples of foods with high concentration of saturated fat?Palm oil, coconut oil, palm kernel oils, animal meat and meat products (pork, beef, poultry), dairy foods (whole and reduced fat milk, butter, cheese and dairy desserts), cookies, cakes and other baked goods
List examples of foods with high concentration of trans fats?Frying oil in restaurants and fast-food establishments, baked goods, processed snack foods
***SUMMARY = A reduction in ____ ______ fat or a goal for total fat intake is not recommended?Total dietary
*** SUMMARY = Saturated fat increases ____ cholesterol while replacement with what types of unsaturated fats lowers LDL cholesterol?1) LDL cholesterol 2) mono- and polyunsaturated fats
*** SUMMARY = Lower intake of saturated fat with higher intake of mono-and polyunsaturated fat is associated with what?Lower rates of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality
*** SUMMARY = Reducing total dietary fat, including _____ fat, and replacing it with unspecified carbohydrates does NOT lower the risk of CVD?Saturated
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