CC Jan 2016 Blue light, electronic devices and sleep

echoecho's version from 2016-01-05 16:37


Question Answer
Human beings have tried to cope with sleep disturbances for millennia. With the rapidly increasing use of electronic technologies, _____ photoreceptors exist that have nonvisual functions within the nervous system and influence daytime and sleep activities?retinal
These retinal photoreceptors are variably stimulated by different light sources, what color of light seems to have the greatest influence?blue
Explain the circadian influence on the physiology of sleep?1) involves specialized intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) 2) these cells are NOT involved in the visual perception but rather, in circadian photoreception and are connected to the biological clock region of the hypothalamus 3) the primary photopigment, MELANOPSIN, responds only to a narrow band of wavelength around 450 nm (blue). 4) when stimulated, this pathway from photoreceptors through the hypothalamus to the pineal gland results in melatonin suppression, delayed sleep onset and altered sleep patterns (photoentrainment)
List examples of devices that produce light via light-emitting devices (LED) than emit blue light?1) televisions (although the effect may be attenuated by distance away from the viewer) 2) computer monitors 3) laptops 4) video game consoles 5) LED light bulbs 6) "cool" fluorescent bulbs (4100K) 7) cellular telephones
A comprehensive review of the effects of electronic devices on circadian rhythm showed that ______ is the most potent environmental signal affecting the human circadian clock?light
Exposure to light in the evening and early part of the night, even at low intensity, does what to the release of melatonin and does what to the circadian clock?1) suppresses release of melatonin 2) shifts the circadian clock to a later time
While considerable time is reuqired to reverse the process, it generaly can be accomplished in ____?weeks
*** What age group seem to be more sensitive to this blue light effect (up to 10-fold) than middle-aged and older adults?adolescents
Explain why the blue light effect does nothave much influence on older adults?yellowing of the introcular lens with age provides some natural filtering of this wavelength
Comment on cataract removal as it pertains to photoreceptor sensitivity?there is "reinstatement" of the photoreceptor sensitivity to blue light
Electronic device use is a factor of what, that is independent of the blue light effect?sleep disturbance
9 out of 10 Americans (96% of those < 30 y.o.) report using an electronic device in the ____ before bed?hour
______ use is the most common electronic device at 60% (used before bed)?television
Those < 30 years of age are more likely to use what electronic device before bed?cellphones
More other interactive devices (computers, laptops, cell phones, video game consoles) used in the hour before sleep are morel likely to cause difficulty falling asleep and lead to ______ sleep?unrefreshing
10-20% of adolescents use their cell phones when?after lights out or are awakened by incoming calls/text messages
*** An inverse relationship between the duration of weeknight sleep and the use of electronic devices by adolescents in the ___ to ___ year age range is report?11; 13
What is reported in frequent music listeners, late night television viewers and video gamers?1) delay in sleep onset (sleep latency) 2) frequent early awakening
Music listeners are at increased risk for what?frequent nightmares
A 2012 Time/Qualcomm poll conducted with 4700 respondents in 8 countries found that _____ people were more likely to say that they don't "sleep as well because I am connected to technology all the time". This response peaks at ____% for 18-24 year olds and falls consistently with age?younger; 24%
Give the results of a study that looked at the physiologic effect on sleep between reading a book on a backlit e-reader vs. reading a paper book?readers of the e-BOoks were less sleepy, had longer sleep latency and less rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. They were sleepier in the morning and took longer to attain the same level of alertness than those who read a printed book
Greater use of light-emitting technologin the ____ spectrum is associated with poorer outcomes in many parameters of sleep?blue
Humans should limit this exposure and consider scheduling passive activities in between their use of interactive electronic devices and sleep, give one example?reading a paper book
Children and adolescents should limit what?their nocturnal use of electronic entertainment and communication devices
The presence of cellphones and televisions in the bedroom is particularly detrimental to what?sleep
A novel suggestion is the use of "____-_____" glasses by youth during the prolonged exposure to electronic devices?blue-blocker
Device manufacturers are now developing products with what type of technology to reduce exposure to blue lightwavelength-filtering
*** SUMMARY = Devices that produce light via light-emitting diodes (LED) preferentially emit ___ light that can adversely affect sleep?blue
*** SUMMARY = What age group are more sensitive to this blue-light effect than older adults?adolescents
*** SUMMARY = Electronic device use is an __________ (independent vs. dependent) factor of sleep disturbances?