Cardiovascular Terminology

rexicose's version from 2009-06-14 22:12
Question Answer
Sternopericardial ligamentIn horses, cattle and pigs, attaches apex of heart to the sternum
Phrenicopericardial ligamentIn carnivores, attaches apex of heart to the diaphragm
Sinus venarummain chamber of the righ atrium
Annuli fibrosirings of collagen and elastic fibres that encircle the heart, forming a fibrous skeleton & separating atria and ventricles
Fibrous trigonedense plate of annuli fibrosi formed between the AV valves and the base of the aorta
os cordisossified fibrous trigone found in ruminants
Tunica intimainnermost layer of blood vessel, consists of endothelium, subendothelial coat, internal elastic lamina
Tunica mediamiddle layer of blood vessel. Mix of circularly arranged smooth muscle cells, collagen and elastic fibres and fibroblasts
Tunica adventitiaouter layer of blood vessel. consists of external elastic lamina and dense fibroelastic tissue
conducting (elastic) arterieslarge arteries with wide lumen, conducting large volumes of blood around the body
Distributing (muscular) arteriessmall and medium sized arteries carrying blood to specific tissues
continuous capillariesno pores or interruptions between endothelial cells. Found in muscle, lungs and nervous tissue
fenestrated capillarieshave pores scattered throughout endothelial walls. Found in endocrine glands, intestines and glomerular capillaries of kidney, sites where fluid transport is important


Question Answer
sinusoidal capillarieslarger and more irregular shaped with no distinct basement membrane. Found in endocrine organs, aortic and carotid bodies
Sinusoidseven larger, basement membrane mostly absent, with gaps in the walls through which large molecules including proteins may be exchanged. Found in bone marrow and liver. Hepatic ones have associated macrophages
Sinuseslarger than sinusoids, with a discontinuous basement membrane. Occur in the spleen.
Venuleslined by endothelial cells; associated with loose connective tissue.
Small and medium veinsIncreasing smooth muscle, but considerably less muscular than arteries of comparable size
Collateral circulationArtery branches given off before terminating in a tissue, that connect with others to form a collateral network. If one is damaged, other arteries can support the tissue
Anatomical end arteryA single artery supplies blood with no collateral circulation. Occlusion of the vessel results in tissue death
Functional end arteryWhere the supplying artery has insufficient collateral circulation to compensate for arterial blockage, which still results in tissue death
Retia MirabiliaMajor arteries which split abruptly into multiple parallel vessels. May act as countercurrent heat exchange, reduce pulse pressure in arteries or allow exchange of molecules between the arterial and venous system
Arteriovenous anastamosesallow blood to be shunted directly from an arteriole to a venule, bypassing the capillary bed. Are important in thermoregulation in structures such as skin, rabbit ears, horse hooves
Vasa vasoruma fine network of vessels supplying the walls of major blood vessels. Is located on the outside of the tunica media, adjacent to the external elastic lamina
Portal systemA vein connecting two capillary beds. eg hepatic portal system
Alternative venous drainageWhen tissues are drained by two venous routes. Eg bronchial circulation
Veins without valvessome specially adapted large veins lack valves eg vertebral venous sinuses, venae cavae and the portal vein


Question Answer
the pulmonary valve is heardin the third intercostal space at the level of the costochondral junction
the aortic valve is heardin the fourth intercostal space just below the level of the shoulder joint
the left AV valve is heardin the fourth or fifth intercostal space, just above the costochondral junction
the right AV valve is heardat the third or fourth intercostal space at the costochondral junction
S1 first heart soundDue to sequential closure of mitral and tricuspid valves
S2 second heart soundDue to closure of aortic and pulmonary valves
S3 third heart sounddue to recoil of blood from ventricular wall at end of rapid filling
S4 fourth heart soundcoincides with atrial contraction


Congenital cardiovascular problems
Question Answer
Atrial septal defectFailure of closure of the foramen ovale. Increased load on the right side of the heart results in pulmonary congestion and relative pulmonic stenosis
Ventricular septal defectresults in increased pulmonary blood flow & left ventricular dilation and failure
Patent ductus arteriosusFailure of closure at birth results in left to right flow as the pulmonary vascular resistance and righ heart pressures both decreas,m while left heart pressures increse. Pulmonary congestion and a "machinery murmur"
pulmonic stenosisresults in right ventricular hypertrophy and failure, has high pitched seagull murmur.
Aortic stenosisresults in poor coronary blood supply and often sudden death following myocardial damage
congenital AV insufficienciesunusual in the dog, common in geriatric. commoner in cats
Tetralogy of fallotfour simultaneous problems: ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis, aortic override and right ventricular hypertrophy. Results in stunting cyanosis and usually terminal
Vascular ring anomaly (persistent right aortic arch)abnormal development of the aortic arches. The right IV arch develops instead of the left IV arch and its connection with the left VI arch (ductus arteriosus) forms a constrictin band around the oesophagus, results in megaoesophagus
portosystemic shuntsanastomosis forms between the portal system and any main vein in the trunk. Allows toxic metabolic products from the gut to bypass the liver and go directly to the heart.