Cardiovascular 2

taylormaloney's version from 2016-03-22 01:29

Section 1

Question Answer
Blood is considered what type of tissue?A liquid connective tissue with blood plasma acting as ECM.
Blood makes up ____% of total body mass, and ____% of ECF.8% Total Body Mass, 20% Total ECF.
What is the average pH level for human blood ?Approx 7.35-7.45
How much blood is normally found in an adult human?Approx 4-6 L
What are the components of blood plasma?91.5% Water, 7% Proteins, 1.5% other solutes
What are the components of formed elements ( within blood ).99% RBCs, 1% WBCs / Platelets

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the principle function of RBCs?Transportation of gasses.
RBCs are bioconcave discs, why are they this shape?The ability to carry more O2 molecules.
What does HbA and HbF stand for?HbA- adult hemoglobin. HbF- fetal hemoglobin.
What is the average lifespan of a RBC?Approx 120 days.
What is the name of RBC formation?Erythropoiesis- stimulated by Erythropoietin.
Define Anemia.Blood's oxygen carrying capacity is too low to support normal metabolism.
Define Sickle-cell Disease.A genetic defect that causes abnormal hemoglobin.
What are the common methods of blood doping?Addition of erythropoietin, synthetic oxygen carriers, and blood transfusions.
What are the common adverse reactions to blood doping?Increased risk of blood contamination and cardiovascular diseases.

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the five types of WBC's?Neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes.
What is the life span of WBC's in comparison to RBC's?WBCs live for a few hours to a few days. EXCEPT lymphocytes- which can live for years.
What mechanism acts as first line of defense for WBCs?Phagocytosis- destruction of foreign substances/invasive materials.
Define LeukemiaProduction of cancerous WBC's by Red Bone Marrow, which proliferate excessively and remain unspecialized.

Section 4

Question Answer
What is another name for Platelets?Thrombocytes
What is the lifespan of platelets?Approx 5-9 days.
What is the primary function of platelets?Prevention of blood loss from ruptured blood vessels- clotting.
Define ThrombocytopeniaLow platelet levels that induce less effective protection from bleeding out.
Define ThrombocytosisHigh platelet levels that increase thombosis (blood clotting).

Section 5

Question Answer
Where is the largest portion of blood found in the body (while at rest)?Systemic Veins and Venules (64%)
Where is the remaining blood found in the body at rest?Systemic Arteries/Arterioles (13%), Pulmonary Vessels (9%), Systemic Capillaries (7%), Heart (7%)
How is Blood Flow measured? What is the average circulation time?Volume of blood flowing through tissue in any given time. ( mL/min)- Average = 1 minute in resting state.
What factors can influence blood flow?Blood Pressure, Vascular Resistance, Venous Return.
Define SBPSystolic Blood Pressure- highest arteriole pressure during ventricular systole.
Define DBPDiastolic Blood Pressure- lowest arteriole pressure during ventricular diastole.
What are the three factors affecting Vascular Resistance?Diameter of Blood Vessel Lumen, Blood Viscosity, Total BV length.
What are the three factors affecting Venous Return?Pressure generated by the heart, Skeletal Muscle Pump, Respiratory Pump.

Section 6

Question Answer
What hormones act to regulate Blood Pressure?AndII, Aldosterone, Epinephrine/Norepinepherine, ADH, and ANP.
What is the function of AngII and Aldosterone?Angiotensin II and Aldosterone cause vasoconstriction and increase in water & sodium.
What is the function of epinephrine/norepinephrine?Increased CO, Increased Blood Flow to Skeletal Muscles + Lungs.
What is the function of ADH?Anti Diuretic Hormone- cause vasoconstriction, decreased urination, decreased sweating.
What is the function of ANP?Atrial Natriuretic Peptide- causes vasodilation, decreased aldosterone secretion and effectiveness.
Where does ANP originate?Released by cardiac muscle cells in the atria, as a response to high blood pressure.