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Cardiology- pathology

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drnieves's version from 2017-06-20 01:25

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Question Answer
Carotid sinusAbove bifurcation of common carotid artery
Afferent limb IX, efferent XCarotid sinus
Carotid sinus stimulationIncrease in parasympathetic and withdrawal of sympathetic output to the heart and peripheral vasculature. Bradycardia, hypotension, syncope
Cyanotic congenital heart defectsEbstein's anomaly, truncus arteriosus, transposition of great arteries, tricuspid atresia, TOF, total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
Non cyanoticASD, VSD, PDA, Coarctation of aorta.
Paradoxical embolismOriginate in systemic venous circulation and enter arterial circulation via shunts (PFO, ASD, VSD, larga pulmonary arteriovenous malformations)
ASDWide, fixed splitting of S2, mid systolic ejection murmur from increased flow across pulmonic valve, and a mid diastolic rumble from tricuspid flow.
Can also occur due to transient reversal of the shuntparadoxical embolism
Aortic stenosisMC complication of aortic bicuspid valves. Puts develop significant stenosis at 50 yrs.
Temporal arteritisElderly females. Unilateral headaches, jaw claudication.
Ophthalmic a occlusion can lead to irreversible blindness. Ass. with polymyalgia rheumaticaTemporal arteritis.
Affect branches of internal carotid, focal granulomatous inflammation, increased ESRTemporal arteritis
Temporal arteritis txIL-6, Tocilizumab, steroids.
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