Cardio - Embryology, Aortic Arch, & Branchial Arch Derivatives

cunevale's version from 2016-08-14 01:39

Heart Embryology

for a simple way to remember


Question Answer
Truncus arteriosusAorta + Pulmonary trunk
Bulbus cordisSmooth parts of LV + RV
Primitive atriaTrabeculated parts of LA + RA
Primitive ventriclesTrabeculated parts of LV + RV
Primitive pulmonary veinSmooth part of LA
Sinus venosus (L horn)Coronary sinus
Sinus venosus (R horn)Smooth part of RA
R common cardinal vein and R anterior cardinal veinSVC

Jugular Venous Pulse

Question Answer
a waveR atrial contraction
c waveRV isovolumentric contraction --> tricuspid valve bulges into RA
x descentFull RV contraction, w/ RA relaxation
v waveRA filling against closed tricuspid valve
y descentBloodflow from RA to RV (diastole)
Absent x descent indicates what pathological process?Tricuspid regurg.

Aortic Arch Derivatives

Question Answer
1st Maxillary
2nd Stapedial
3rdCommon carotids + Internal carotids
4th Aortic arch + Right subclavian
6thPulmonary trunk + Ductus arteriosus

Branchial Arch Derivatives

Question Answer
1CN V (trigeminal V2, V3)
1Meckel's cartilage (mandible, malleus, sphenomandibular ligament)
1sphenomandibular ligament
1muscles of mastication (masseter, temporalis, pterygoids)
1 anterior belly of digastric
1tensor tympani
1 tensor veli palatini
2CN VII (facial)
2Reichert's cartilage (stapes, styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid ligament)
2styloid process
2lesser horn of hyoid
2stylohyoid ligament
2 mucles of facial expression
2stapedius muscle
2stylohoid muscle
2posterior belly of digastric
3CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
3greater horn of the hyoid
3stylopharyngeus muscle
4-6thyroid cartillage
4-6cricoid cartilage
4-6arytenoid cartilage
4-6corniculate cartilage
4-6cuneiform cartilage
4CN X (superior laryngeal branch)
4most pharyngeal constrictors; circothyroid, levator veli palatini
6CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)
6all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid

Branchial Pouch Derivatives

Question Answer
1stmiddle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells
2ndepithelial lining of palatine tonsil
3rddorsal wings = inferior parathyroids, ventral = thymus
4thdorsal wings = superior parathyroids, ventral = ultimobranchial body (parafollicular C cells)

Congenital Cardiac Defect Associations

Question Answer
22q11 syndromestruncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot
Down syndromeendocardial cushion defect (ASD, VSD, AV septal defect)
Congenital rubellaPDA, pulmonary artery stenosis, septal defects
Turner syndromeBicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta (preductal)
Marfan syndromeMVP, thoracic aortic aneurysm & dissection, aortic root dilation / aortic regurg
Infant of diabetic momtransposition of great vessels
Fragile XMVP