Cardiac Pathology

seraclues's version from 2015-09-03 00:20

biochem and structural

Question Answer
BNPa natriuretic peptde invovled in fluid homeostasis and blood pressureregulation. Released in response too volume overload, cardiac hypertrophy and hopoxia.
BNP indicates what, in cats and dogsdogs: useful indicator of heart failure. Cats: distinguishes between primary pulmonary disease and CHF (but ONLY CHF, not other heart disease)
PDAFemale poodles. pulmonary hypertension and L:R ratio gone
Atrial septal defectpatent foramen ovale or incomplete closure. pulmonary hypertension and L:R ratio gone
Ventricular septal defectjust below AV valves.
Tetralogy of fallotventricular septal defect, right ventircular hypertrophy, transposition of aorta and pulmonic stenosis. CYANOSIS characteristic sign.
Pulmonic stenosisright ventricular hypertrophy and signs of RSCHF if severe
Subaortic stenosispigs and dogs. Left ventricular hypertrophy, thrombosis aroudn coronary arteries ->myocaridal infarction, and signs of LSCHF in dogs
congenital valve formationuncommon, but in cats and dogs
valvular hematocystblood-filled cysts on valves of young ruminants. spontaneously regress.

Abnormalieis of large blood vessels

Question Answer
Persistent right aortic archchronic regurgitation, megasophagus proximal. No change in blood flow
Transposition of aorta and pulmonary arterymost commonly both from right ventricle, or aorta 50:50. rare. Severe signs, usually born dead or post-natal
Most common in dogsPDA, PRAA, pulmonic and subaortic stenosis
Most common in Catsventricular septal defect and left AV malformation
Most common in pigsventricular septal defect and subaortic stenosis
Most common in cowsVentricular and atrial septal defect, and transposition of the aorta

Pericardial disease

Question Answer
Pericarditispurulent (pyogenic bacteria and Bovine Traumatic Reticulitis, causing huge neutrophils in peri sac). or Fibrinous (non-pyogenic bacteria from haemogenous spread).
Causes of fibrinous pericarditis in pigs, catte, horse and catHaemophilus parasuis; Haem.somnus; Strep spp; FIP
Pathology of fibrinous pericarditisbacteria damage blood vessels, so fibrin leaks. if lots then it attacehs to the pericardial surface and contracts as it matures, restricting the heart (bread and butter heart)
Bread-and-butter heartFibrinous pericarditis when large amounts of fibrin attached to the pericardial surface
Vitamin E/Se deficiency in ruminantsMyocardial necrosis and fluid containing fibrin
Vitamin E/Se deficiency in pigsoxidative damage to myocardial blood vessels, so blood leaks into pericardial fluid (mulberry heart)
Hemopericardiumblood in peri sac. Dogs rupture of right atrial hemangiosarcoma. Pigs/horses rupture of proximal aorta.
Enterotoxaemiapulpy kidney. toxins harm vessels, so fibrin leaks. autolysis of kidneys. LARGE fibrin clot is strongly indicative.

Endocardial disease

Question Answer
Endocardial mineralizationJet lesions. due to reflux (valve insufficiency). common in cattle due to chronic disease (johnes eg)
Valvular endocardiosisdogs >10yo almost all. degeneration fo valvular collagen, usually left AV. lesions smooth and shiny. KCharles predisposed
Atrial thrombosissecondary to size and shape change, and turbulent flow (AV valves). large clot impairs heart, smaller ones go elsewhere.
EnocarditisBacteria. lesions on vlaves yellow/grey and rough, vegetative (fibrin, RBCs and bacteria). Left: heart infarction. Right: pulmonary abcess.

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