Cardiac nursing 2

juniperk's version from 2017-09-17 23:15


Question Answer
If you have an occlusion, which coronary arteries is the most damaging to the heart?Left main coronary artery because that causes ischemia of the left ventricle
Anterior MI is usually occurring in an area supplied by which artery?Left anterior descending artery
Posterior MI is usually occurring in an area supplied by which artery?Right coronary artery
Lateral MI is usually occurring in an area supplied by which artery?Left circumflex artery
What are the 13 signs and symptoms of MI?Chest pains, tachycardia, decreased pulses, dysrhythmias, diaphoresis, mottled skin, dyspnea, Decreased LOC, anxiety, N/V, EKG changes, Heart failure, increased temp due to tissue necrosis (poss increased WBC)
What will an EKG show with an MI?Elevated ST segment or an inverted T wave
What 3 markers are released after an MI?Troponin, Myoglobin, and CK MB
What is the normal BUN and Serum Creatinine level for an adult?BUN Adults: 7—18, Serum Creatinine 0.6—1.35
When a patient comes in with an MI what is the first thing you start them on?Thrombolytic therapy
What are 6 things to teach a patient for cardiac rehabilitation?Avoid extremes of heat or cold. Alternate rest and activity. Avoid heavy lifting or bearing down. Eat small frequent meals low fat and low salt diet. Take medications as prescribed. Increased activity as able.
In heart failure, is your ejection fraction higher or lower?Ejection fraction is significantly lower. Normal left ventricular ejection fraction is 50-75%.
What are some left sided heart failure symptoms?Difficulty breathing Rales (crackles) Orthopnea Weakness Nocturnal Paroxysmal dyspnea (awaking during sleep with extreme dyspnea) Increased heart rate (due to fluid overload and the heart is trying to get the blood to organs but it can’t because of muscle failure) Nagging cough (can be frothy or blood-tinged sputum from fluid overload in the lungs…very bad sign) Gaining weight from the body retaining fluid…2-3 lb in a day or 5 lbs in a week
What are some right sided heart failure symptoms?Swelling of legs, hands, liver, abdomen Weight gain Edema (pitting) Large neck veins (jugular venous distention) Lethargic (weak and very tired) Irregular heart rate (atrial fibrillation) Nocturia (frequent urination at night) lying down elevates the legs and allows the extra fluid to enter into the vascular system which allows the kidneys to eliminate the extra fluid. Girth of abdomen increased (from swelling of the liver and building up fluid in the abdomen) …can’t breathe well and this causes nausea and anorexia.
What is the medical management for a patient with CHF?Rest, Diet restrict fluids, O2, ACE inhibitors, Beta blockers, Diuretics, Inotropic Agents
What tests are used to diagnosis heart failure?• BNP blood test: a biomarker released by the ventricles when there is excessive pressure in the heart due to heart failure. • <100 pg/mL no failure • 100-300 pg/mL present • Chest x-ray • Echocardiogram • Heart cath • Nuclear stress test
What does Digoxin do?Used for heart failure. Increase contractility of the heart - helps to increase left ventricular output
What electrolyte levels do you need to monitor when preventing digoxin toxicity?Potassium, magnesium, and calcium
What are the risks factor for developing heart failure?FAILURE: Faulty heart valves, Arrhythmias, Infarction, Lineage, Uncontrolled hypertension, Recreational drug usage, Evaders (influenza)
True or False: Patients with left-sided diastolic dysfunction heart failure usually have a normal ejection fraction.T. Patient with left-sided DIASTOLIC dysfunction heart failure normally have a normal ejection fraction. However, patients with left-sided SYSTOLIC dysfunction heart failure usually do not because the heart is unable to CONTRACT efficiently rather than fill properly as with diastolic dysfunction
What are the symptoms of pulmonary edema?Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing- air hunger sensation, cyanosis, gurgling sounds w/ breathing, wheezing, crackles, orthopnea, tachycardia, pink frothy sputum is a cardinal sign anxiety and restlessness, cool clammy skin
What hear sound are you going to hear in a patient with pulmonary edema?S3

Recent badges