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Carbohydrates

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allelipraise's version from 2017-09-23 16:07

Section 1

Question Answer
Carbohydratesconstitute a large proportion of the plant biomass and are responsible, as cellulose, for rigid cellular framework, and as starch, for providing an important food reserve
MucillageFound in marshmallow root and psyllium seeds, act as water-retaining vehicles
Gumsformed in plant by injury or stress and usually appear as solidified exudates
BiosynthesisLight and dark reactions of photosynthesis is responsible for producing carbohydrates converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy
MonosaccharidesArise from the photosynthetic cycle
MonosaccharidesFree sugar may accumulate as a result of hydrolysis of the phophorylated sugars or the latter maybe utilized in respiration, converted to sugar nucleotides or by the action of various epimerases, give rise to other monosaccharides
MonosaccharidesContains from 3-9 carbon atoms, but those with 5 and 6 carbon atoms are accumulated in plants in greatest quantity
BiosesContains 2 carbon atoms: Do not occur free in nature
TriosesContains 3 carbon atom, but in the form of phosphoric ester
TetrosesThey contain 4 carbon atoms
PentosesVery common in plants and are the products of hydrolysis of polysaccharides like hemicelluloses, mucilages and gums
HexosesContain 6 carbon atoms and are abundantly available carbohydrates of plant kingdom (Aldoses and ketoses)
HeptosesContains seven carbon atoms, important in the photosynthesis of plant and glucose metabolism of animals are rarely found accumulated in plants.
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Section 2

Question Answer
DisaccharidesCarbohydrates which upon hydrolysis yield 2 molecules of monosaccharides
SucroseThe most common example of a disaccharides
SucroseFormed in photosynthesis by the reaction of UDPG with F6P (sugar cane)
MaltoseGlucose and glucose (malt sugar)
LactoseGlucose and galactose (Cows milk)
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Section 3

Question Answer
Trisaccharidesliberate 3 molecules of monosaccharides on hydrolysis
RaffinoseUpon hydrolysis gives glucose, fructose and galactose(beet, sugar cane)
GentianoseGives 2 molecules of glucose and fructose (gentian roots)
TetrasaccharidesYields on hydrolysis 4 molecules of monosaccharides
PolysaccharidesTerm may usefully be taken to include polysaccharides complexes which yield in addition to monosaccharides their sulfates esters, uronic acids or amino sugars
Oligosaccharidessaccharides containing from 2 to 10 units
Serve as storage of energyUses of Carbohydrates
Ribose (5-carbon monosaccharide)important component of coenzymes
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Section 4

Question Answer
Fehlings's solutionbrick red ppt is obtained for positive test
Molisch TestTest is positive with soluble as well as insoluble carbohydrates
Molisch TestConsist of treating the compoinds with a-naphthol and conc sulfuric acid which gives purple color
OsazoneSugar derivatives formed by heating a sugar solution with phenyldrazine hydrochloride, sodium acetate and acetic acid
Resorcinol test for ketones(Selivanoff's Test)(rose color)A crystal of resorcinol is added to the solution and warmed on a water bath with an equal volume of conc. HCl
Keller-Kiliani TestTest for deoxysugars
Keller-Kiliani Test(reddish-brown gradually produces blue)A deoxysugar found in cardiac glycosides is dissolved in acetic acid containing a trace of ferric chloride and transferred to the surface of conc. H2SO4
Furfural test(pink or red stain)A carbohydrate sample is heated in a test tube with a drop of syrupy phosphoric acid to convert into furfural
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Section 5

Question Answer
Absorbent Cotton Wool, Absorbent WoolSame test as cotton, raw cotton
FlaxPrepared from the pericycle fibers of the stem of (Linum usitatissimum)
HempPrepared from the pericycle fiber of the stem of (cannabis sativa)
JuteConsist of strands of phloem fibers from the stembark of (Corchorus capsularis)
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Section 6

Question Answer
CottonGossypium herbaceum
CottonPrepared when ripe bolts are collected, dried and subjected to a ginning process to separate the hairs from the seed
Combed(Cotton-coming machine)separates all the shorter fibers and a thread is spun consisting of long, well-paralleled, uniform fibers
Carded(Carding machine)uses fibers which are shorter and less uniform in length, and the absence of combing is shown in the yarn by the irregular arrangement of the fiber
Absorbable hemostatic dresingsGelatin sponge, oxidzed cellulose and alginate dressings overcome this in which theres no need to remove them after bleeding and cannot be absorbed by the tissues.
Cellulose Wadding prepared from high-grade bleached sulfite wood pulp which is received by the manufacturer in the form of boards about 0.75m square and 1mm thick
Oxidized CelluloseCotton wool or gauze is treated with nitrogen dioxide until the number of carboxyl groups formed by the oxidation of the primary groups of glucose residue units of the cellulose reaches 16.22%
Pyroxylin BP(Cellulose Nitrate)Prepared by the action of nitric and sulfuric acid on wood pulp or cotton linters that have been free from fatty materials.
Sodium AlginateAlgin, alginic acids sodium salt
Alginic acidA polyuronic acid composed of reduced mannuronic and glucouronic acids, which are obtained from the agal growth of the species of family phaeophyceae
Test for alginateMoisten 1-5 mg of the sample with water and add 1mL of acid ferric sulfate
Pregelatinized starchprepared from maize, rice or potato strach by suitable mechanical rupturing of the grains in the presence of water either with or without heat followed by drying
Soluble starchsoluble starch is prepared by teating commercial potato starch with HCl acid until after washing it forms a lipid almost clear solution in hot water
Commercial dextrinKnowns as white dextrin which is prepared starch which has been moistened with a small quantity of dil. nitric acid and dried at 110-115 C
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Starch

Question Answer
Starch(Amylum)Consist of polysaccharides granules obtained from grains of maize ( Zea mays) rice (oryza sative L) or wheat (triticum aestivum L)
Potato/Rice/Maize/wheat starchpreparation of starch
Potato starchThe potatoes are washed to removed the earthy matter/ they do not contain gluten
Rice starchbroken pieces of rice resulted during the polishing/crushed and starch prepared as described under potato starch
Maize starchlike the other types of starch being washed with water to remove organic matter
Wheat starchcontains gluten/ used as food and for preparation of starch
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Fructans

Question Answer
Fructansare d-fructose polymers each chain being terminated by a single D-glucosyl residue
Inulinbest-known fructans and most important pharmaceutically
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Question Answer
Inulin BP/EPObtained from the tubers of Dahlia variabilis, Helianthus tuberosus
Inulin injectionused for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate
Dandelion RootTaraxacum officinale
Dandelion Rootcontains up to 40% of carbohydrates
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agar

Question Answer
Agaragar -agar
agargelidium amansii
Agarred algae are grown in rocks in shallow water
Deep freezingalgae which is collected is waashed in running water for a day and then extracted firstly with dilute acid in steam heated digester and then with water for 30 minutes.
Agarcomplex heterosaccharide and cotains 2 different polysaccharides
Agaroseneutral galactose polymer and is responsible for the gel property of agar
Agaropectinresponsible for the viscosity of agar solution
Fehlings and Molisch Test for Agar
Used to treat chronic constipation/laxative and suspending agentUses of agar
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Alginic Acid

Question Answer
Alginic AcidHard, Horny Polysaccharide
Extractionis macerated with dilute sodium carbonate and the resulting pasty mass diluted with sufficient soft water to make practicable
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Acacia gum

Question Answer
Acacia gumGummy steam exudations of Acacia Senegal (L.)
Ripening of the gumgum is dried in the sun by keeping it in trays in thin layers for about 3 weeks when bleaching takes place and its becomes whiter
Arabina complex mixture of calcium, magnesium and potassium salts of arabic acid
Arabic acida branched polysaccharide that yields L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucorunic acid
Lead acetate testan aqueous solution of acacia when treated with lead acetate solution yields a heavy white ppt.
Reducing sugars testhydrolysis of an aq. of acacia with dil. HCl yields reducing sugars
Blue coloration due to enzymeswhen aq. sol of acacia is treated with benzidine in alcohol together with a few drop of H2O2
BoraxAn aq. sol. of acacia fials to produce any ppt with dil sol of lead acetate
Ghatti(indian gum) derived from anogeissus latifolia
West african gum combretumnot permitted as a food additive but is exploited as an adulterant of gum arabic
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Question Answer
Couch grass rhizomeconsist of the washed and dried rhizomes of agropyron repens (L.)
Ghatti gumGhati/Gutty
Ghatti gumobtained tree bark of Anogessius latifolia
Ghatti gumartificial incisions are made on the tree bark in the absence of the rain and gum is picked up in the month of april
Good emulsifier/stabilizer/thickenerGhatti gum uses
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Guar gum

Question Answer
Guar gumCyamopsis tetragonolobus L
Guar gumIodine solution(0.1N) fils to give olive-green coloration
Guar gum2% solution of lead acetate gives an instant white ppt. with guar gum
Used as protective colloid, binding and disintegrating agentGuar gum uses
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Karaya Gum

Question Answer
Karaya Gumdried gummy exudates obtained from the tree streculia urens
GranularCrystal gum(6-30 mesh)
Powdered Gum150 mesh
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Locust bean gum

Question Answer
Locust bean gumgum consist of endosperms of the seeds of Ceratonia silque L.
Carobevergreen tree growing to a height of about 10m has luxuriant perennial foliage
Stabilizer/thickener/binderLocust bean gum uses
Marshmallow rootAlthaea officinalis
Marshmallow roota perennial herb which is found wild in moist situation in southern England and europe
Marshmallow rootUsed as demulcents, particularly for irritable coughs and throat and gastric inflammation
Mullien FlowerThe dried flower, reduced to the corolla and androecium of (Verbascum thapsus)
Psyllium(Flea seed)Dried ripe seeds of plantago afra(P.psyllium)
Psyllium(Flea seed)used as demulcents and in the treatment of chronic constipation
Sterculia gumthe dried gummy exudates obtained from the tree (Streculia urens)
Sterculia gumUsed as bulk laxative, being second only to psyllium seed in use in this respect
Tragacanth (Goat's thorn)it is the air dried gummy exudates, flowing naturally or obtained by incision
Xanthan Guma microbial polysaccharide produced from Xanthomonas compestris
Xanthan Gumcomposed of chiefly D-glucosyl, D-mannosyl and D-glucosyluronic acid
Xanthan GumUsed as stabilizer and suspending agent in emulsion paints and agricultural and herbicidal sprays
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Bael

Question Answer
Baelconsist of the unripe or half ripe fruits or their slices or irregular pieces of aegle marmelos corr
Carrageenanconstituents of irish moss are the similar polysaccharides as that agar
Galactanthe major of Carrageenan
Kappa/Lota/LamdaTypes of Carrageenan
CarrageenanUsed as an emulsifying agent/stabilizing agent/Solubilizing agent/Viscosity builder in food productts
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