Cancer and tumors-done

quickster2008's version from 2015-12-30 03:06

Section 1

Question Answer
What bone tumor would be likely in a teenage male with night pain relieved by aspirin?osteoid osteoma
An expansile, oval, lucent lesion in the proximal phalanx of a thirty-five-year-old female is most likely a (an)?enchondroma
Do large or small lesions typically characterize malignant bone tumors?large
"Onion skin" changes in the periosteum are typical of what bone tumor?ewing's sarcoma
Why are malignant bone tumors unlikely to be expansile?they grow too fast
"Ground Glass" tumor matrix is often seen with what bone tumor?fibrous dysplasia
Why do pathological fractures and rickets-like bowing occur in fibrous dysplasia patients?Normal osseous tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue thus weakening the bone(s).
Malignant tumors are often characterized by intense periosteal reactions. List four such descriptive reactions. "Hair on end," "sunburst," Codman's triangle, "onion skin."
List three patterns of osseous destruction from bone tumors in ascending order of aggressivenesGeographic, moth-eaten, and permeative.
If a soft tissue mass is associated with an osseous tumor, this indicates a tendency for the tumor to be benign or malignant?Malignant.
To prevent recurrence on removing an osteoid osteoma surgically, the surgeon must do what?Excise central lucent nidus.
Can an enchondroma convert to a malignant lesion and, if so, what?Yes, chondrosarcoma.
A disease manifested by multiple enchondromas is calledOilier's disease.
Maffuci's disease is characterized byMultiple enchondromas and hemangiomatosis.
Name four benign bone tumors that can convert to a malignant one.Osteochondroma, enchondroma, giant cell, and fibrous dysplasia.
Regarding the clinical/radiographic/laboratory presentation, list ten commonalities for osteogenic sarcoma and osteomyelitis.Malaise ("sick" patient), calor at the site, erythema at the site, tenderness at the site, edema at the site, possible fever, bony destruction on radiograph, Codman's triangle on radiograph, positive bone scan and increased WBCs.
Describe the patient profile for chondrosarcoma.Male in his fifties.
A pathological fracture of a unicameral bone cyst can result in what radiographic finding?The fallen fragment sign.
The metastatic lesion most commonly found distal to the knees and elbows results from what primary tumor?Lung cancer.
List three findings associated with McCune-Albright's syndrome.Fibrous dysplasia, Cafe au Lait spots ("coast of Maine"), and precocious puberty.
Why do aggressive and malignant primary bone tumors most frequently occur in the distal femur, proximal tibia, proximal femur and proximal humerus?These are the regions of the greatest longitudinal bone growth.
Name a malignant primary bone tumor that may be found in the diaphysis.Ewing's sarcoma.
Name three classifications of malignant lesions.Mesenchymal, myeloproliferative and metastatic.
Why is osteoid osteoma pain worse at night?Diurnal production ofprostaglandins.
Define synovial chondromatosisA benign condition in which metaplasia o f synovial tissue results in the production o f intra-articular loose bodies.
What is the difference between a nonossifying fibroma and a fibrous cortical defect?Size. The fibrous cortical defect is less than 4 cm and the nonossifying fibroma is greater than 4 cm.
With regards to bone tumors, what do the terms monostotic and polyostotic refer to?Monostotic-One bone is involved; Polyostotic-greater than one bone is involved.
Fibrous dysplasia leading to a varus deformity ofthe femur is also known asThe shepherd's crook deformity.
Name the most common primary malignant bone tumor and the most common benign bone tumor.Multiple myeloma and osteochondroma, respectively.
What is another name for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)?Reticulum sarcoma o f the bone.
Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor of what?Plasma cells.
Histologically speaking, plantar fibromatosis may resemble what malignant condition?Fibrosarcoma.
Knuckle pads on the toes, leukonychia and impaired hearing form what syndrome?Bart-Pumphrey syndrome.
Periungual fibromas may be associated with what diseaseTuberous sclerosis.
A giant cell tumor involving the joint space is calledPigmented villonodular synovitis.
What is the most common malignant soft tissue tumor in patients from 0-25 years of age?Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Name four types of Kaposi's sarcomaClassic, African, immuno-suppressed patient, and AIDS-related.
The "rodent ulcer" is associated with what condition?Basal cell carcinoma.
Which is the most aggressive condition: Squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma?Squamous cell carcinoma.
What is Bowen's disease?Squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
What type of melanoma is most commonly seen in Blacks and on the soles of the feet?Acral lentiginous melanoma.
What type of melanoma is most aggressive-nodular or superficial spreading?nodular
Name the two classification systems for melanoma that grade level of invasion and tumor thickness respectively.clark's and breslow's
What is Dupuytren's exostosis?Subungual osteochondroma.
What is mycosis fungoides?Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
In assessing suspicious pigmented lesions, what does A, B, C, D, and E refer to?asymmetry, border, color, diameter, elevation
What is the most common type of melanoma?superficial spreading
What is the most common cancer in man?basal cell carcinoma
Osteosarcoma is chiefly a disease of individuals of less than 20 years of age. can result in a secondary peak in incidence for older adults?paget's dz
What is the most common site for metastases of osteosarcoma?lung
What malignant tumor are patients with Oilier's disease at risk for?Chondrosarcoma.
Which classification of leukemia predominates in childhood? In the aged?Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (eLL), respectively.
What is the most likely diagnosis for a lesion overlying the distal interphalangeal joint that appears to be a "ganglion of the skin"?Mucoid cysts (myxoid cysts).
What gender is most afflicted with plantar fibromatosis?male
In removing the plantar fascia for multiple plantar fibromatosis, special care must be taken with what vital structure?medial plantar nerve
Fibrosarcoma has a predilection for upper or lower extremities?lower
How does a neurofibroma differ from a neurilemmoma regarding axons?In a neurofibroma, axons course through the tumor whereas axons are pushed to the side by the neurilemmoma (sehwannoma).
What is tbe most implicated factor in pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma?Exposure of skin to ultraviolet light (UVL).
When are the majority of hemangiomas first noticed?at birth
Pyogenic granuloma of the nail bed is frequently confused with what?Proud flesh.
What is a Popoff tumor?glomus tumor
List the four descriptive terms used to describe a bone tumor's position in a bone.Central, eccentric, cortical and parosteal.
Name three benign bone tumors that can have a "soap bubble" matrix?aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, chondromyxoid fibroma.
What bone tumor can resemble a miniature physeal region?osteochondroma
A bone tumor in which the trabecular pattern usually runs perpendicular to the axis of the long bone with which it is associated?Osteochondroma.
Name a bone tumor characterized by "chicken wire" calcification.Chondroblastoma.
What are the two most Common bones of the foot affected by primary bone tumors?calcaneus & metatarsals

Section 2