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Camelid 3

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sihirlifil's version from 2018-02-14 20:32

Misc Diseases

Question Answer
Major problem in camelids (esp in warm climates)?Heat stress
Can occur within hours, or sublcinical --> decreased production
What do camelids have for cooling mechanisms?Radiation
Conduction
Convection
Evaporation
Which mechanisms of cooling are only effective with a temperature gradient from environment to animal?Radiation, conduction, convection
Which mechanism of cooling doesnt need a temp gradient?Sweating, increased respiration
Alpacas or llamas are more heat tolerant?Alpacas tolerant (size?)
Causes of heat stressHigh ambient temp
Humidity (esp where it doesnt cool off at night)
Overexertion: fighting, breeding, transportation, prolonged restraint
Fever, dehydration
Poor nutrition or overconditioning
Fiber blocks _________ heat from getting to skinRadiant
Fiber blocks _________ coolingEvaporative
What is the only means for a camelid to cool itself?Respiration! Obligate nasal breathers
What are the thermal windows?Ventral abdomen
Axilla
Inguinal region
Epitrichial sweat glands: more complex & productive
What behaviors help them cool themselves?Posture (5-22% of body surface area)
Piloerection
Dust bathing
Pathophys of heat stressCore body temp rises --> multiple organ failure --> DIC
Important husbandry thing to prevent heat stressShear!
CS of heat stressDecreased intake
Hind end weakness- walk like drunk
Difficulty rising, stiff gain
Recumbency (semi-sternal, or lateral)
Dullnuss to obtundation
Abnormal behavior
Decreased response to pain
Proprioceptive deficits
Ptyalism, dyspnea/open-mouth breathing
Edema of scrotum, prepuce (vasc permeability & decr oncotic pressure)
Congested mucus mb
Hyperthermia 103-108*F (duh lol)
DEATH! CVS failure
After you treat heat stress, what should you keep in mind afterwards?Hypothalamic damage may persist! So it may be hard for them to thermoregulate again
This llama presents ataxic, stiff, anorexic, etc... think what?
Heat stress
Dx of heat stressHx, PE (high temp >104)
Electrolyte abnormalities
Dehydration
Anemia, hypoprotenemia, metabolic (lactic) acidosis
Heat stress dx: which electrolyte abnormality is consistent?HypoNa
Heat stress dx: evidence of dehydration?Azotemia
Hemoconcentration: can progress to anemia (use PE findings to assess how dehydrated)
Tx of heat stressEarly recognition!
Rapid cooling
IV fluids
Address metabolic derangement
Heat stress tx: How should you go about with rapid cooling?Shear fiber! soaking is ineffective if fiber still there. Fans, AC, ice, cool water enema
Heat stress tx: risk with IV fluids?Beware fluid overload! PULMONARY EDEMA
Prevention of heat stressShade, air conditioning, fans
Shearing
Moistened sand, pond/pool, access to plenty of water
Prevent obesity
Avoid stress, breeding, transportation when hot
An owner calls thinking his llama has "Epi..." what is it?Mycoplasma haemolamae
What is M. haemolamae?Epicellular organism, found on edge of RBCs (eperythrozoonosis)
M. haemolamae causes what?Extravascular hemolysis
CS of M. haemolamaeMost animals asymptomatic! Organism stays dormant in spleen, stress --> recrudescence --> hemolysis
Transmission of M. haemolamaeBlood transfusions (eg for haemonchus), vertical, iatrogenic
M. haemolamae: Clinical diseaseExtravascular hemolysis
Dullness
Pale muc mb
Tachypnea & tachycardia
M. haemolamae: Subclinical diseaseLethargy
Ill-thrift
Infertility
Mycoplasma EV hemolysis: Plasma color?Not drastically discolored
Mycoplasma EV hemolysis: Urine color?
Mycoplasma EV hemolysis: How will PCV/TP differ from Haemonchus infections?Mycoplasma: PCV low, TP normal
Haemonchus: PCV AND TP LOW
Dx of MycoplasmaCytology of blood smear (may be hard to find, absence doesnt r/o dz)
PCR! Sensitive and specific! Carrier, subclinical, and clinical cases
Tx of mycoplasmaSupportive care: IV fluid therapy to improve perfusion, blood transfusion if necessary
Oxytetracycline: IV q24h for 5 days, but might not fully clear infection
What's this?
Mycoplasma haemolamae
Which derm diseases are found in camelids?Zinc responsive dermatosis, Idiopathic Superficial Hyperkeratotic Dermatosis (Munge)
CS of zince responsive dermatosisAlopecia, scaling, hyperpigmentation, +/- pruritis of face, abdomen, thighs
Tx of zinc responsive dermatosisZinc sulfate 2g/day
CS of MungeHyperkeratosis of face, axilla, distal extremities, perineum in animals 6m-2y old
Tx of MungeTopical antibx, steroids (supportive)
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Diseases of Crias

Question Answer
Basic TPRT = 100-102
P = 80-120 BPM
R = 10-40 bpm
When do incisors erupt?Should be erupted at birth! (2-3 weeks before, helps decide if premature)
What membrane should you see around the cria at birth?Epidermal membrane attached around coronary bands, mucus membranes. Should wear off in ~1 hour
When should a cria stand? suckle? pass meconium?Stand in 1h, suckle 2-3h, meconiu, 18-20h
How often should a cria suckle?2-3 times per hour, for <1 min at a time (less freq than foals)
Crias should drink _________% BW in colostrum during first day of life20%
Colostrum from where?Should get from hembra, can be frozen banked, goat, or cow (milking a camelid is not fun)
What should you measure pretty quick in a cria?IgG
Peaks 24-48h, mean t1/2 = 15.7d
How is IgG measured? What is considered acceptable passive transfer?Radial Immunodiffusion
>1000 mg/dL at 36h
>800 to insure (they use the cutoff for horses)
What can total solids tell you?Can approximate IgG. >5.5 g/dL is ok, <4.5 probably not
TP 4.7 (glob 2.4) = IgG 1000mg/dL
MAJOR RISK FOR NEONATAL SEPSIS =FPT
How can you detect neonatal sepsis on PE?Might be difficult- vital parameters often normal (or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, <10% hyperthermic). Unhaired skin fluorescent pink
LACK OF WEIGHT GAIN, lethargy, decreased suckling
Neonatal sepsis: clin pathLeukopenia OR cytosis
Neutropenia
Band neutrophilia
Hyperfibrinogenemia
Blood culture
Tx of neonatal sepsisHyperimmune plasma: IV or IP (put plasma where its actually going to help)
IV antibiotics: Broad spec, ensure G(-) coverage. Combo therapy: Penicillin/ampicillin with Gentamycin. Can use ceftiofur or TMS
Nutritional support if not nursing
Fluids (IV or enteral) (CAREFUL OF PULM EDEMA)
CRIA RULE #1NEVER bolus a cria with IV CRYSTALLOIDS
Camelids cannot handle high fluid burdens, it is very easy to overhydrate them! PULM EDEMA
Hyperosmolar syndrome: most important trigger?Decreased fluid intake i.e. not nursing, usually triggered by underlying disease
What often happens to crias when septic or sick?Hyperglycemia
Poor pancreatic insulin response. Can be iatrogenic (dextrose, oral glucose, corticosteroids)
Pathogenesis of hyperosmolar syndromeHyperglycemia --> glucose diuresis --> free water loss --> hypernatremia & worsening hyperglycemia --> viscous cycle
How can hyperosmaolar syndrome become more life-threatening than pre-existing sepsis?Serum Na can exceed 160 mEq/L, BG can be 600-1500 mg/dL!!
CS of hyperosmolar syndromeHead tremor, ataxia, basewide stance
Tx of hyperosmolar syndromeCorrect Na w/ isotonic IV fluids & hypotonic oral fluids
Insulin if BG so high & poor pancreatic response
Incidence of congenital defects?41%! Limited breeding population in USA
Common congenital defectsChoanal atresia
VSD/ASD
Angular limb deformity
Perineal defects
Juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome
What is choanal atresia? CS? Dx?Can be osseous or membranous. CS = mouth breathing, collapse. Dx = endoscopy, contrast rads, CT
What's wrong with this guy?
Choanal atresia
What are some congenital vulvar abnormalities?Labial fusion, imperforate vulva, vulvar hypoplasia (total vs subtotal)
Sole defect
Urometra
CS of vulvar hypoplasiastranguria noticed at time of breeding (shoot urine into air)
memorize

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