Camelid 2

sihirlifil's version from 2018-02-14 15:10


Question Answer
HORSE dzs camelids can getWNV, EEE, EHV-1, Strep zoo
RUMI dzs camelids can getBVD, Johne's, Orf, FMD, VS, Ketosis
What does a camelid with colic look likeNot demonstrative. can feel abdominal distension (need to touch them though)
Which CS of colic do you need to monitor?Attitude
Vital parameters (tachycardia)
Social isolation (shoujld be with their buddies)
Whats going on here, what do you have to be aware of?
Camelids can pretend to eat! watch to make sure they're chewing cud/are actually eating
Signs of colic: fecal production?Amount, consistency, mucus/melena/fresh blood? (hard to figure out if multiple animals kept together)
Signs of colic: assess abdominal contour by...PALPATING
How will a colicky camelid be acting?Restless- frequently getting up & lying down. Legs out to side, not cushed. Teeth grinding (ddx from chewing cud). Rolling (ddx from dusting self), kicking at amdomen
What's this? common in?
Most commonly <1y.o.
Risk factors for trichophytobezoarsPost-weaning suckling behavior
Poor chewing
Excessively fibrous feed
(mineral deficiency?)
What do trichophytobezoars do in younger animals?Form in C3 --> obstruct outflow of C3 or duodenum
What do trichophytobezoars do in adultsForm in C3 --> obstruct spiral colon (makes it farther, lumen gets smaller & 180* change in direction)
Dx trichophytobezoars: ChemSerum chloride <100 mEq/L, Chloride in C1 >35 mEq/L (like abomasal outflow obstruction)
Metabolic alkalosis
Hemoconcentration, azotemia, hyperglycemia (stress & dehydration)
Dx trichophytobezoars: ImagingRadiographs, US, CT (can fit in gantry!)
Radiograph of trichophytobezoar
Tx of trichophytobezoarsMedical stablization
Surgical removal necessary
Tx of trichophytobezoars: sx approach?Right paracostal celiotomy: LLR, easiest access to duodenum
Ventral midline (if dont know exactly where obstruction is, not as good)
Prognosis of trichophytobezoarDuration of signs negatively correlated with prognosis. Better in duodenum than jejunum (not been there as long). Severe mucosal inflammation may lead to irreparable rupture, necrosis of bowel wall
Spiral colon impaction in ADULTS?Common! Digesta (no long fibers), trichophytobezoar/enterolith
PAINFUL, marked distension of colon & ileum. Need surgery
Spiral colon impaction in CRIAS?Underrecognized. Low grade colic, abdominal distension, diarrhea, decreased feces
High WBC in peritoneum
Prodnosis grave (3/12 survived >3m)
Medical or sx tx
C3 impaction usually consists of? what happens to the animal?Usually sand & fibrous material, more common in animals fed low quality hay
Begins to lose weight because of decreased nutrient absorption
What kinds of strangulating lesions can camelids get?Displacements, torsions: Spiral colon, distal small intesting, mesenteric; after coccidial d+, altered motility
Entrapments: body wall, diaphragm, mesentery, epiploic forament, intra-abd adhesions
Intussusception: CS? dx? tx?Mild-moderate colic signs, +/- strangulated depending on chronicity
Dx: Bulls-eye on US
Usually requires sx
Inflammatory GI lesions (4)Forestomach acidosis
Gastritis (fungal, saccular bezoars, ulcers)
Inflam extending to peritoneum
Where are camelids prone to ulcers? risk factors?C3
Stress, NSAID/steroid use, high grain diets (similar to abomasal)
CS of C3 ulcersMild colic, inappetance, pain should be easily controlled (except crias)
Dx of C3 ulcersDifficult! cant do fecal occult blood test. US the area, see if looks thickened. dx of exclusion
C3 ulcers will occasionally...Perforate --> peritonitis, death
C3 ulceration drugs: Proton pump inhibitors?IV omeprazole (compounded)
IV or SC pantoprazole
Oral medications (Gastrogard) are ineffective in adults!!!
C3 ulceration drugs: Ranitidine?Not accessible IV :/ (can be IM or SC too)
C3 ulceration drugs: Sucralfate?Helps a little, most doesn't make it to C3
C3 ulceration drugs: Bismuth/kaolin?No evidence that it helps
C3 ulceration: Misoprostol?NO NEVER! might cause collapse & death!
Tx of C3 ulcerationMinimize stress & NSAID use, can use prophylactic pantoprazole
Whose egg is this
Eimeria macusaniensis
Dx of Eimeria?Difficult! not always going to see on fecal. 25-40 day prepatent period (CS but not shedding). Fecal smear recommended
Tx of eimeriaAmprolium at least 5 doses (more -static that -cidal)
Ponazuril works really well, only 1 dose
Toltrazuril (not avail in USA, also effective)
Overall GI dzsTooth root abscesses
Abnormal tooth wear
Esoph obstruction
GI parasites: Eimeria macuasaniensis, Haemonchus contortus
Causes of colicC3 ulceration
GI impaction: C3, trichophytobezoars, spiral colon
Grain overload
Strangulating: volvulus, intussusception
Most important indicator for surgical interventionFailure of analgesics to control pain!!!
Non-GI cause of colic: MaleUrolithiasis
Non-GI cause of colic: FemaleUterine torsion
Uterine torsion happens when?Hembras in mid-late gestation
Dx of uterine torsionChallenging b/c can't rectal. Varying degrees of pain, 90-360*, clockwise>counter
Tx of uterine torsionRolling (risk of tearing uterus)
Vaginal manipulation if not severe
Abd sx
Prognosis of uterine torsionGood it treated early. Severe systemic illness may develop rapidly if off feed long enough, metabolic derangements. Good prognosis for breeding soundness if survive
Urolithiasis happens in who? Where?Breeding males, where the pelvic urethra turns into penile. also entrance to glans penis, sigmoid flexure
Risk factors of urolithiasisMineral imbalance, castration, inflammation of urinary tract
Uroliths can be made up of?Struvite, calcium phosphate/carbonate, uric acid, silicate
Inflammatory cells alone
CS of urolithiasisColic, anorexia
Straining to urinate, urine dribbling, hematuria
Bladder rupture = extreme pain, the quiet
Dx of urolithiasisHx, PE (look & feel prepuce, crystals on hair)
Abdominal US
Tx of urolithiasisMedical stabilization (hyperkalemic, need fluids)
Surgical diversion. can't pass catheter b/c sigmoid flexure; persistent frenulum, urethral orifice. Can do tube cystomoty, bladder marsupialization (but if breeding want to leave urethra)
Prognosis of urolithiasisReturn to breeding poor, recurrence likely :(


Question Answer
Similar to SRPolioencephalomalacia
P. tenuis
Similar to horsesWNV
LLamas are the _________ host of P. tenuisAberrant! Deer are normal reservoir host, snails carry parasite
CS of P. tenuisSpinal ataxia & weakness, recumbency, but are still aware (intracranial disease less common)
Dx of P. tenuisNot definitive antemortem. Can do CSF tap (easy to do in camelids, cushed) --> eosinophils in CSF
Goals of P. tenuis txDecrease inflammation caused by parasite
Kill migrating parasites
Tx of P. tenuisDexamethasone for a few days, or flunixin (control inflam)
Fenbendazole/Ivermectin (kill migrating)
Supportive care if recumbent (passive range of motion, float)
Gastroprotectants: combo of stress & NSAID/steroid use --> C3 perforation
T/F Albendazole can tx P. tenuisFALSE! Toxic in camelids DO NOT USE IT
Prevention of P. tenuisRoutine deworming
Limit contact with deer or snails/slugs: remove brush piles, build stone moat around pasture...
What are these CS? likely dx?
Horners syndrome! & CN 7, 8
Otitis media & interna, extension of externa
Dx of otitis M/IRads, CT
Tx of otitis I/MAntimicrobials, anti-inflam, optic care (ulcers)

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