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Camelid 1

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sihirlifil's version from 2018-02-14 03:08

Basics

Question Answer
Old world =Dromedary, Bactrian
New world =
Llama is from? characteristic?From South America, largest of new world camlids
Alpaca: types? based on?
Llama vs Alpaca: adult wtL: 250-450lb
A:120-175lb
Llama vs Alpaca: special characteristicsLlama: Banana ears, no fiber below carpi/tarsi
Alpaca: topknot present, almost vertical pastern
Word for neonateCria
Word for maleMacho
Word for femaleHembra
Words for parturitionCriation or unpacking :)
What the general behavior like?Bold, inquisitive, initiate contact with new animals/objects
How do camelids express dz/pain?Very stoic-may hide CS. Do not tend to express pain in recognizable ways
Ill, painful, dying = will remain recumbent and not eat
Whats this guy's deal?
Neck curl of death!
Is this normal?
NO! Should never really be in lateral recumbency
Is this normal?
Yep! "cushing" = sternal recumbency, elevating sternum & axillary off ground for ventilation
Funky noisesHumming = content
Orgling = sounds male makes during breeding
Alarm call (velociraptor lol)
How do males get along in a herd?Territorial & hierachical: fight by biting, kicking, spitting, ramming with ches
Unique thing with territorialismDung pile
What is a "berserk" or "rogue" male? how does it happen?Imprinted on humans from a young age as crias (orphans or pets), handled excessively by owners. As adults show territorial and hierarchical behavior towards people
Basic camel handlingDont like being touched- stand at shoulder, move slowly
Restrain with halter, chute, belly band (like to push when get stressed), back into corner
Keep in mind when using one of these...?
Be sure it doesnt obstruct nasal passages: OBLIGATE NASAL BREATHERS! dont pull, they will cush
How would this make your life happier?
they spit and it smells
Difference from cattle: teeth?Canines! primarily in males, erupt at 1.5-3 years. Trimmed to gumline with gigli wire
Difference from cattle: feet?2 digits on each, soft pad over corium & digital cusion, nail is non-weight-bearing
Difference from cattle: stomach?Pseudoruminant
What's the role of C3? (w/ %'s)Prox 80%: Absorbs water (pH 6-7)
Distal 20%: secretes acid (pH 2-3) (kind of like horse stomach)
GI sounds: C1Similar to rumen: 2-3 conx/min. Lower than rumen sounds, more subtle
GI sounds: C2NO SOUNDS! Fermentation only
GI sounds: C3Similar to abomasum: NO SOUNDS
Parts of intestinesSI, cecum, spiral colon, transverse, descending, rectum, anus
What happens at the spiral colon?Lumen narrows, change in direction
T/F Can stim female to urinate similar to cowTrue... sometimes
T/F males urinate backwardsYep! prepuce points that way
T/F Lanolin helps them repel waterF! they dont make lanolin, but roll in dust
What's the hair on the ventrum like?Short (=thermal window)
In warm weather, something important to prevent heat stres =Barrel cut
Normal place for callusesVentral thorax from cushing
Dorsal carpus
Sides of metetarsus
Dorsal interdigital spaces
How is the skin on the ventral neck?Very thick! often fight
It's hard to draw blood from a camelid becauseVentral neck skin so thick, hard to see where jug is
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Camelid vs. True Rumi

Question Answer
Primary spot for venipunctureJugular
Something to remember about blood with venipunctureVenous blood looks redder than other species
WHen doing jug venipuncture, be aware of _________ in this locationCarotid artery!
(Other sites for venipuncture)Lateral marginal vein (ear)
Cephalic vein in crias
Medial saphenous vein
Middle coccygeal vein
Speaking of thick skin, what if I have to put in a jugular catheter??BLOCK and do CUT DOWN FIRST! over the wire catheter easier than stylet
Injection sites?
OVALS: Subq (neck, behind elbow, scapula)
STAR: IM (neck, caudal thigh)
Which route of admin for injections?AVOID IM whenever possible!!!! dont have a lot of mass
Oro or nasogastric tube? why?Orogastric
Small nasal openings, smaller diameter tube, risk of epistaxis
What do you need for orogastric intub?Oral speculum & small PVC tube. size of tube depens on size of animal
Is this normal??
Yep! elliptical RBCs
PCV can be 25-40
How does WBC count & fibrinogen compare to rumis?Similar
How does biochem panel compare to rumis?similar, but Hyperglycemia (higher normal BG) & higher creat
How do camelids handle glucose?Hyperglycemia: peripheral insulin resistance. HYPERCLYC CAN BE PROFOUND (>300mg/dL) due to STRESS!
Glucose-induced osmotic diuresis can occur (so be aware of this when getting urine)
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Diagnostic Procedures

Question Answer
BCS 1 =? 10?1 = emaciated
10 = obese (scale out of 9 also often used)
What to eval for camelid BCSTopline
Ribs
Cd ventrum
Cr ventrum
Tail head
TPR normsT = 99.5-102.0
P = 60-90 BPM (40-60 for llamas)
Resp = 10-30 bpm
Lung field
May need what for ausculting breath?Rebreathing bag. possible to hear no abnormalities even with pneumonia
PE: approach?Stand at shoulder, minimal direct eye contact
PE: muc mb?Gums often pigmented, so use conjunctiva or vulva
PE: at the head, dont forget...?Oral exam!
PE: GI motilityAuscult C1 at L paralumbar fossa, 2-3 contrax/min, listen for borborygmi on R flank (SI)
PE: LN?Difficult to palpate unless enlarged
Rectal exam: possible?Not really. digital exam is feasible. LUBE! topical lidocaine, sacrococcygeal epidural
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