Caged Avians- Noninfx diseases

pbhati17's version from 2017-02-09 16:02

Section 1

Question Answer
What are some metabolic diseases that avians can get?Iron storage disease. visceral gout, amyloidosis/hepatic lipidosis
Which species are predisposed to iron storage diseasetanagers, starlings, mynahs, bulbuls, toucans
What kind of diet predisposes animals to Iron storage disease?Diets high in Vit C and Iron
What are the CS of iron storage disease?ARD
How to diagx Iron storage dz?Elevated liver enzymes, BA,CS, hypoproteinemia in mynahs; in toucans you have to check TIBC, DDX==>liver biopsy
How to tx iron storage disease?Supportive care, tannin/tea water(chelates iron), low iron diets, phlebotomy@ 1% bw, deferoxamine
What are the CS of visceral gout?PU/PD, sudden death
Diagx of visceral goutNecropsy, sometimes radiographs
Tx of visceral goutas in other species

Section 2

Question Answer
What are some potential toxins?Inhalants, metals, plants, pharmx, pesticides
What types of inhalants are toxic?any respiratory irritant potential, carbon monoxide, polytetrafluroroetherylenes, disinfx
What types of metals can be toxic?zinc + Lead can cause central / peripheral neuro signs, blooddyscrasias
How do you tx metal toxicitymetal CaEDTA, DMSA
What plants are toxic to avians?Avocado,dieffenbachia, yew, foxglove,lupine,oleander
What drugs are toxic to avians?More like what isn't... many drugs, esp furans and metronidazoles
What pesticides are toxic to avians?Organophosphates cause CNS signs such as tremors, ataxia, seizures, diarrhea, anorexia

Section 3

Question Answer
What types of neoplasias can avians get? Carcinoma, SCC,Papillomas, Xanthomas,Fibrosarcoms, Lymphoma/LSA,Thymoma/Thyroid adenocarcinoma, Lipoma, Pituitary adenoma
What organs does Carcinoma typically affx?Usually kidney, liver, biliary, pancreas, spleen , stomach
How to tx Carcinoma?if solitary then sx excise and chemo
In amazons w/ biliary/pancreatic carcinoma what other virus might be involved?Herpes
Where does SCC occur in birds?Mucocutaneous jxns of head, distal wing/phalanges, UP gland
Tx SCClocally invasive to sx excise, rarely able to completely excise it
Where do papillomas tend to occur?Near cloaca
How do we tx papillomasUse Acetic acid to dx tool, sx remove it is curative but recurrance is possible
Why are we able to excise xanthomas?they're well demarcated/defined
Where do fibrosarcoms typically occur?Orally, in long bones, abdominal cavity
How do we tx Fibrosarcomas?Radiation therapy, strontium, sx
Where do Lymphomas/LSAs occur?Retrobulbar in psittacines, may metastasize
How to tx lymphoma/LSAChemo, sx, radiation
How to tx a thymoma/thyroid adenocarcinomaSx excision, cisplatin
Where do Lipomas typx occur?Usually in budgies on the sternal area- tx by modifying the diet
Which species most commonly get pituitary adenomas?Budgies and Cockatiels
What are the Clinx signs?Neuro, +/- retrobulbar mass, exophthalmia, Tx not practical

Section 4

Question Answer
What are seeds defx in?Vit A, Ca, most fatty acids
Birds prefer...lipid rich, high energy, high carb seeds
Food rancidity can cause...toxicity, fungal dz, bacterial overrowth
Supplements can betoxic
Which species need grit?pigeons, fowl, canaries, finches
What is the special diet for lories?Nectar
What are the signs of an acute nutritoinal imabalance?Abnormal molting/feathers, Abnormal skin(flaking, pruritis,tearing), beak/nail overgrowth
How do you tx Acute nutx imbalances?Husbandry corrections(UVB,perches,diet,psych), medical implementation, trim beak/nails, consider supplements of vit, minerals,FAs
CS of Chronic nutx imbalance?Obesity, wasting, chronic hepatic damage==> regurg, vomx, inappetance, seizures, listlessness, AGRESSION, Abnormal gram stain
How do you diagnose a chronic nutx imbalance?CBC/chem/rad/US, bile acids are a good marker of hepatic damage in birds
How to tx chronic nutx imbalance?supportive GI/hepatic meds, PROBIOTICS, hubandry
Iron storage can cause what?ascites, heart failure, multisystemic dz

Section 5

Question Answer
In what species is feather plucking predominant?African Greys, Cockatoos, captive birds
What causes feather plucking?multifactoral; utx, derm, psych,metab, environmental, parasites, etxx.
How do you diagnose feather plucking?assessment of owner/px intx, diet, health, environmental assessment
Tx of feather plucking?changes in husbandry, tx secondary problems, protective gear, psych meds
How do you hand feed large parrotsCatheter tip syringe
How do you feed smaller parrotsshortened rubber tube
What's the caution with metal ball tip feeding tubes?They're stronger than the wall of the crop so there's risk of perforation
Crop stasisFood retained and becomes rancid in the crop and then cadida can invade leading to a compressed trachea, diffx breathing
How to tx crop stasisAntibx, Pacrazyme helps aid digestion/ease passage
What is crop impactionfluid is absobed but food items become lodged in crop- usually after grit/roughage in diet is inccreased
What can crop impaction become?ingluvioliths
How do you tx crop impaction?sx if can't flush manually
What is a crop burn?Formula is too hot then damages mucosal lining of crop, forms fistula can lead to edema, infx, sepsis, necrosis
How to tx a crop burn?Supportive, antimicrobials, sx, hydrophilic bandaging
What can happen if you use sx to tx a crop burnSecondary scarring of crop can lead to digestive problems
What are signs of a feather cysts?oval/elongated swelling w/ accumulation of keratin, caseous discharge; cause is usually undetx
How to tx feather cysts?esection of affx follicle intact, topx/systemic antbx; have to remove the follicle otherwise keeps coming back
Extremity constrictions/burns are caused by what?secondary to distal constrictions by fibers from bedding/leg bands
Tx Extremity constrictionremove offender and tx w/ bandage/topx/systemic /pain meds
What is bumble food/pododermatitisCaused by inappropriate perching, oobesity, inactivity, vit A defx, secondary bactx infx
Tx for bumble foottopx , badaging , correct underllying problems
What are CS for egg binding?upright position w/ wide based stance, fluffed, inappetant, palpable space occupying mass in cloaca, coelom, lethargy, unable to defx
How to dx Egg binding?PE Plapation of egg, radiographs
How tx egg binding?Parenteral calcium==> caution when admin, need to give slowly and don't overdose; SQ fluids, heat, aspiration of egg, lube and manual removal of egg
Which air sac is most likely to be ruptured?Cervicocephalic AS
What are causes of an air sac rupture?infectious, inflammation, trauma, iatrogenic(bagging during anx)
CS of air sac ruptureSQ emphysema @neck, problems swallowing
Tx of AS ruptureSx placement of cutaneous teflon stint
Broken blood feathers are dangerous becauseCAN BLEED TO DEATH esp if primary feather
How do you tx a broken blood featherMust be pulled from follicle completely at base of shaft==> under anx watch bird when wakes up b/c of low BP