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C480 Chapter 10

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verickle's version from 2016-10-26 19:54

Windows Commands

Question Answer
arpYou can use the _____ command to see what a Layer 2 MAC address corresponds to as a known Layer 3 IP address. In addition, you can use the _____ command to statically add a MAC address to IP address mapping to a PC's Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) MAC address lookup table (sometimes called the ARP cache).
ipconfigYou can use the _____ command to display IP address configuration parameters on a Windows PC. In addition, if the PC uses Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), you can use the _____ command to release and renew a DHCP lease, which is often useful when troubleshooting.
nbtstatThe _____ command displays NetBIOS information for IP-based networks. The _____ prefix of the _____ command refers to NetBIOS over TCP/IP, which is called NBT or NetBT. This command can, for example, display a listing of NetBIOS device names learned by a Windows PC.
netstatYou can use the _____ command to display various information about IP-based connections on a PC. For example, you can view information about current sessions, including source and destination IP addresses and port numbers. You can also display protocol statistics. This might be useful for troubleshooting purposes. For example, you might issue the _____ command and see that your PC has sessions open to an unknown host on the Internet.
nslookupAlthough the _____ command offers various command options, this section focuses on the most common use for the command. Specifically, you can use the _____ command to resolve an FQDN to an IP address. This can, for example, help you to determine whether a DNS record is correct and to verify that your DNS server is operating.
pingThe _____ command is one of the most commonly used command-line commands. You can use it to check IP connectivity between two network devices. Multiple platforms (for example, routers, switches, and hosts) support the _____ command.
routeThe _____ command can display a PC's current IP routing table. In addition, you can use the route command to add or delete entries to or from that routing table.
tracertIf a ping were unsuccessful, or if the round-trip response times seem too long, the _____ command might help isolate the issue. Specifically, the _____ command pings every router hop from the source to the destination and reports the round-trip time for each router hop.
PathPingcombines features of Ping and Tracert over a period of time. It can be used with IPv4 and IPv6. _____ shows the amount of packet loss at any given router so you can identify the routers that might be causing in the path.
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Parameters for the Windows arp Command

Question Answer
–a or –gThese options display current entries in a PC's ARP table.
–vThis option, where the v stands for verbose, includes any invalid and loopback interface entries in a ARP table.
inet_addrThis option is a specific IP address.
–N if_addrThis option shows ARP entries learned for a specified network.
–dAn ARP entry for a host can be deleted with this option, in combination with the inet_addr parameter. A wildcard character of * can delete all host entries.
–sThis option, used in conjunction with the inet_addr and eth_addr parameters, statically adds a host entry in the ARP table.
eth_addrThis parameter is a 48-bit MAC address.
if_addrIf a host has multiple interfaces, an ARP entry might be associated with a specific interface. This option can be used for statically adding or deleting an ARP entry to or from a specified interface.
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Parameters for the Windows ipconfig Command

Question Answer
/allThe ipconfig command entered by itself displays summary information about a PC's IP address configuration. This parameter gives more verbose information, including such information as DNS and WINS server IP addresses.
/release or /release6These options release a DHCP lease for an IPv4 and IPv6 address, respectively.
/renew or renew6These options renew a DHCP lease for an IPv4 and IPv6 address, respectively.
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Parameters for the Windows nbtstat Command

Question Answer
–a remote_nameThis option allows you to see the NetBIOS table of a remote PC with a NetBIOS name as specified by the remote_name argument.
–A ip_addressThis option allows you to see the NetBIOS table of a remote PC with an IP address as specified by the ip_address argument.
–cThis option displays the contents of a PC's NetBIOS name cache along with the IP addresses corresponding to those NetBIOS names.
–nThis option displays NetBIOS names that have been registered by an application, such as a server application.
–rThis option shows statistical NetBIOS information, such as the number of NetBIOS names resolved by broadcasting and the number of NetBIOS names resolved by a WINS server.
–RThis option purges a PC's NetBIOS cache and reloads entries from a PC's LMHOSTS file (which is a text file containing NetBIOS to IP address mappings) that have #PRE following the entry. The #PRE option in an LMHOSTS file causes those entries to be preloaded into a PC's NetBIOS cache.
–SThis option provides a listing of the NetBIOS session table, along with the IP addresses of the listed NetIOS names.
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Parameters for the Windows netstat Command

Question Answer
–aThis option displays all of a PC's active IP-based sessions, along with the TCP and UDP ports of each session.
–bThis option shows you the names of the program that opened up a session.
–eThis option shows statistical information for an interface's IP-based traffic, such as the number of bytes sent and received.
–fThis option displays fully qualified domain names (FQDN) of destination addresses appearing in a listing of active sessions.
–p ProtoThis option displays connections for a specific protocol, which might be icmp, icmpv6, ip, ipv6, tcp, tcpv6, udp, or udpv6.
–rThis option displays a PC's IP routing table. Note: This command generates the same output as the route print command.
–sThis option displays statistical information for the following protocols: icmpv4, icmpv6, ipv4, ipv6, tcpv4, tcpv6, udpv4, and udpv6.
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Parameters for the Windows ping Command

Question Answer
–tThis option repeatedly sends pings (ICMP echo messages) until you stop it by pressing Ctrl+C.
–n countThis option specifies the number of pings to send.
–fThis option sets the don't fragment bit in a packet's header. If the packet tries to cross a router that attempts to fragment the packet, the packet is dropped, and an ICMP error message is returned.
–i TTLThis option sets the TTL value in a packet's header. The TTL is decremented for each router hop. A packet is discarded when its TTL value reaches 0.
–S srcaddrIf the PC from which you are issuing the ping command has more than one IP address, this option allows you to specify the source IP address from which the ICMP echo messages should be sent.
target_nameThis option specifies the name or the IP address of the device to which you are sending ICMP echo messages.
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Parameters for the Windows route Command

Question Answer
–fThis option clears gateway entries from the routing table. If this option is used with another option, the clearing of gateways from the routing table occurs before any other specified action.
–pThis option can be used with the add command to make a statically configured route persistent, meaning that the route will remain in a PC's routing table even after a reboot.
commandSupported commands include print, add, delete, and change. The print option lists entries in a PC's routing table. The add option adds a route entry. The delete option removes a route from the routing table, while the change option can modify an existing route.
destinationThis option specifies the destination host or subnet to add to a PC's routing table.
mask netmaskThis option, used in conjunction with the destination option, specifies the subnet mask of the destination. If the destination is the IP address of a host, the netmask parameter is 255.255.255.255.
gatewayThis option specifies the IP address of the next-hop router used to reach the specified destination.
metric metricThis option specifies the cost to reach a specified destination. If a routing table contains more than one route to reach the destination, the route with the lowest cost is selected.
if interfaceIf you want to forward traffic to a specified destination out of a specific interface, use this option.
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Parameters for the Windows PathPing Tool

Question Answer
–g host-listLoose source route along host-list.
–h maximum_hopsMaximum number of hops to search for target.
–i addressUse the specified source address.
–nDo not resolve addresses to hostnames.
–p periodWait period milliseconds between pings.
–qnum_queries Number of queries per hop.
–w timeoutWait timeout milliseconds for each reply.
–4Force using IPv4.
–6Force using IPv6.
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UNIX Commands

Question Answer
man commandInvoke man (manual) page
arpSimilar to the Windows _____ command, the UNIX _____ command can be used to display MAC address to IP address mappings.
nslookupThe Windows _____ command was used to resolve a given FQDN to its IP address. UNIX has a similar _____ command, which you can also use for FQDN-to-IP address resolution.
digThe _____ command can similarly be used to resolve FQDNs to IP addresses. Unlike the nslookup command, however, the _____ command is entirely a command-line command. (lacks the interactive mode of the nslookup command.)
hostYet another approach to resolving FQDNs to IP addresses is to use the _____ command. The _____ command offers a variety of options, and you can read more about them by issuing the man _____ command from a UNIX prompt. However, this discussion focuses on the most common use of the _____ command, which is FQDN-to-IP address resolution.
ifconfigThe UNIX _____ command is most similar to the Windows ipconfig command, although the output is noticeably different. Issued by itself, the _____ command displays a UNIX host's interfaces along with configuration information about those interfaces, including MAC address, maximum transmission unit (MTU), IPv4 address, and IPv6 address information.
tracerouteThe _____ UNIX command can be used for the same purpose as the tracert Windows command. Specifically, you can help isolate which router hop along the path from a source device to a destination device is having issues.
netstatThe UNIX _____ command serves the same basic purpose of the Windows netstat command, which is to display various information about current connections. This information includes source and destination IP addresses and port numbers. You can also display protocol statistics with the _____ command.
pingThe UNIX _____ command is most typically used to test network reachability to a specified destination, such as the Windows version ping command. However, unlike the Windows ping command, the UNIX _____ command sends continuous pings, as opposed to the Windows default of only four pings.
routeAlthough the UNIX _____ command is not used to display a host's IP routing table, which is a use of the Windows route command, it can be used to modify a UNIX host's IP routing table.
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Parameters for the UNIX arp Command

Question Answer
–aThis option displays current ARP entries in a UNIX hosts' ARP table.
–nThis option displays network addresses as numbers instead of symbols.
–i interfaceThis option specifies that the arp command should be limited to a specified interface.
–dAn ARP entry for a host can be deleted with this option, in combination with the inet_addr parameter. A wildcard character of * can delete all host entries.
–sThis option, used in conjunction with the hostname and eth_addr parameters, statically adds a host entry in the ARP table.
ifscope interfaceThis option indicates that the arp command should be limited to a specified interface.
hostnameThis option is the IP address of the host to be associated with a specified MAC address.
eth_addrThis parameter specifies a 48-bit MAC address.
tempUsed in conjunction with the –s option, the temp option says that the static ARP entry is only temporary, as opposed to the default of being permanent.
rejectUsed in conjunction with the –s option, this option says that traffic to the destination specified in the static ARP entry will be rejected, and the sender will be notified that the host is unreachable.
blackholeSimilar to the reject option, the blackhole option says that traffic to the destination specified in the static ARP entry will be rejected. However, the sender is not notified.
–f filenameThis option allows an external file to be used to import a collection of ARP entries. The entries in the external file should be in the following format: hostname ether_addr [temp] [ifscope interface]
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Parameters for the UNIX netstat Command

Question Answer
–aThis option displays all of a UNIX host's active IP-based sessions, along with the TCP and UDP ports of each session.
–bThis option shows you the names of the program that opened up a session.
–rThis option displays a UNIX host's IP routing table.
–sThis option displays statistical information for protocols such as udp, ip, icmp, igmp, ipsec, ip6, icmp6, ipsec6, rip6, and pfkey. (Note that these protocols vary depending on your UNIX platform.)
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Parameters for the UNIX ping Command

Question Answer
–c countThis option specifies the number of pings to send.
–DThis option sets the don't fragment bit in a packet's header. If the packet tries to cross a router that attempts to fragment the packet, the packet is dropped and an ICMP error message is returned.
–S srcaddrIf the UNIX host from which you are issuing the ping command has more than one interface, this option allows you to specify the source IP address from which the ICMP echo messages should be sent.
target_nameThis option specifies the name or the IP address of the device to which you are sending ICMP echo messages.
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Parameters for the UNIX route Command Used to Add and Delete Routes

Question Answer
–qThis option, where the q stands for quiet, suppresses any output from appearing onscreen after entering the route command.
–vThis option, where the v stands for verbose, causes additional details about the route command's execution to be shown onscreen.
addThis option adds a route to a UNIX host's routing table.
deleteThis option deletes a route from a UNIX host's routing table.
netThis option specifies that the next parameter is a network address.
networkThis option specifies the network to add or remove from a UNIX host's routing table.
maskThis option is the number of bits in a specified network's subnet mask.
gatewayThis option is the IP address of the gateway, which is the next hop toward the specified network.
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