You can use the _____ command to see what a Layer 2 MAC address corresponds to as a known Layer 3 IP address. In addition, you can use the _____ command to statically add a MAC address to IP address mapping to a PC's Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) MAC address lookup table (sometimes called the ARP cache).
You can use the _____ command to display IP address configuration parameters on a Windows PC. In addition, if the PC uses Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), you can use the _____ command to release and renew a DHCP lease, which is often useful when troubleshooting.
The _____ command displays NetBIOS information for IP-based networks. The _____ prefix of the _____ command refers to NetBIOS over TCP/IP, which is called NBT or NetBT. This command can, for example, display a listing of NetBIOS device names learned by a Windows PC.
You can use the _____ command to display various information about IP-based connections on a PC. For example, you can view information about current sessions, including source and destination IP addresses and port numbers. You can also display protocol statistics. This might be useful for troubleshooting purposes. For example, you might issue the _____ command and see that your PC has sessions open to an unknown host on the Internet.
Although the _____ command offers various command options, this section focuses on the most common use for the command. Specifically, you can use the _____ command to resolve an FQDN to an IP address. This can, for example, help you to determine whether a DNS record is correct and to verify that your DNS server is operating.
The _____ command is one of the most commonly used command-line commands. You can use it to check IP connectivity between two network devices. Multiple platforms (for example, routers, switches, and hosts) support the _____ command.
The _____ command can display a PC's current IP routing table. In addition, you can use the route command to add or delete entries to or from that routing table.
If a ping were unsuccessful, or if the round-trip response times seem too long, the _____ command might help isolate the issue. Specifically, the _____ command pings every router hop from the source to the destination and reports the round-trip time for each router hop.
combines features of Ping and Tracert over a period of time. It can be used with IPv4 and IPv6. _____ shows the amount of packet loss at any given router so you can identify the routers that might be causing in the path.
The ipconfig command entered by itself displays summary information about a PC's IP address configuration. This parameter gives more verbose information, including such information as DNS and WINS server IP addresses.
/release or /release6
These options release a DHCP lease for an IPv4 and IPv6 address, respectively.
/renew or renew6
These options renew a DHCP lease for an IPv4 and IPv6 address, respectively.
This option allows you to see the NetBIOS table of a remote PC with a NetBIOS name as specified by the remote_name argument.
This option allows you to see the NetBIOS table of a remote PC with an IP address as specified by the ip_address argument.
This option displays the contents of a PC's NetBIOS name cache along with the IP addresses corresponding to those NetBIOS names.
This option displays NetBIOS names that have been registered by an application, such as a server application.
This option shows statistical NetBIOS information, such as the number of NetBIOS names resolved by broadcasting and the number of NetBIOS names resolved by a WINS server.
This option purges a PC's NetBIOS cache and reloads entries from a PC's LMHOSTS file (which is a text file containing NetBIOS to IP address mappings) that have #PRE following the entry. The #PRE option in an LMHOSTS file causes those entries to be preloaded into a PC's NetBIOS cache.
This option provides a listing of the NetBIOS session table, along with the IP addresses of the listed NetIOS names.
This option clears gateway entries from the routing table. If this option is used with another option, the clearing of gateways from the routing table occurs before any other specified action.
This option can be used with the add command to make a statically configured route persistent, meaning that the route will remain in a PC's routing table even after a reboot.
Supported commands include print, add, delete, and change. The print option lists entries in a PC's routing table. The add option adds a route entry. The delete option removes a route from the routing table, while the change option can modify an existing route.
This option specifies the destination host or subnet to add to a PC's routing table.
This option, used in conjunction with the destination option, specifies the subnet mask of the destination. If the destination is the IP address of a host, the netmask parameter is 255.255.255.255.
This option specifies the IP address of the next-hop router used to reach the specified destination.
This option specifies the cost to reach a specified destination. If a routing table contains more than one route to reach the destination, the route with the lowest cost is selected.
If you want to forward traffic to a specified destination out of a specific interface, use this option.
Similar to the Windows _____ command, the UNIX _____ command can be used to display MAC address to IP address mappings.
The Windows _____ command was used to resolve a given FQDN to its IP address. UNIX has a similar _____ command, which you can also use for FQDN-to-IP address resolution.
The _____ command can similarly be used to resolve FQDNs to IP addresses. Unlike the nslookup command, however, the _____ command is entirely a command-line command. (lacks the interactive mode of the nslookup command.)
Yet another approach to resolving FQDNs to IP addresses is to use the _____ command. The _____ command offers a variety of options, and you can read more about them by issuing the man _____ command from a UNIX prompt. However, this discussion focuses on the most common use of the _____ command, which is FQDN-to-IP address resolution.
The UNIX _____ command is most similar to the Windows ipconfig command, although the output is noticeably different. Issued by itself, the _____ command displays a UNIX host's interfaces along with configuration information about those interfaces, including MAC address, maximum transmission unit (MTU), IPv4 address, and IPv6 address information.
The _____ UNIX command can be used for the same purpose as the tracert Windows command. Specifically, you can help isolate which router hop along the path from a source device to a destination device is having issues.
The UNIX _____ command serves the same basic purpose of the Windows netstat command, which is to display various information about current connections. This information includes source and destination IP addresses and port numbers. You can also display protocol statistics with the _____ command.
The UNIX _____ command is most typically used to test network reachability to a specified destination, such as the Windows version ping command. However, unlike the Windows ping command, the UNIX _____ command sends continuous pings, as opposed to the Windows default of only four pings.
Although the UNIX _____ command is not used to display a host's IP routing table, which is a use of the Windows route command, it can be used to modify a UNIX host's IP routing table.
This option displays current ARP entries in a UNIX hosts' ARP table.
This option displays network addresses as numbers instead of symbols.
This option specifies that the arp command should be limited to a specified interface.
An ARP entry for a host can be deleted with this option, in combination with the inet_addr parameter. A wildcard character of * can delete all host entries.
This option, used in conjunction with the hostname and eth_addr parameters, statically adds a host entry in the ARP table.
This option indicates that the arp command should be limited to a specified interface.
This option is the IP address of the host to be associated with a specified MAC address.
This parameter specifies a 48-bit MAC address.
Used in conjunction with the –s option, the temp option says that the static ARP entry is only temporary, as opposed to the default of being permanent.
Used in conjunction with the –s option, this option says that traffic to the destination specified in the static ARP entry will be rejected, and the sender will be notified that the host is unreachable.
Similar to the reject option, the blackhole option says that traffic to the destination specified in the static ARP entry will be rejected. However, the sender is not notified.
This option allows an external file to be used to import a collection of ARP entries. The entries in the external file should be in the following format: hostname ether_addr [temp] [ifscope interface]