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verickle's version from 2017-06-19 17:09


: outputs the difference between the two input numbers
Question Answer
!=used to compare if one operator is not equal to another
%modulo operator, outputs the remainder of dividing the first number by the second
*multiplication operator, outputs the product of the two input numbers
**exponentiation operator, outputs the result of multiplying <base> by itself <power> number of times
/division operator, outputs the result of dividing the first number by the second
+outputs the sum of the two input numbers OR concatenation operator, joins two values together
<used to compare if one operator is less than another
<=used to compare if one operator is less than or equal to another

: used to compare if one operator is equal to another

Question Answer
>used to compare if one operator is greater than another
>=used to compare if one operator is greater than or equal to another


Question Answer
abstractionFocus on the essential qualities of something rather than one specific example.
actorsIn a use case, this is anything who lives outside of your system, but has a goal they want to accomplish within.
algorithmA set of commands that returns a value. This differs from a procedure, which is a set of commands that doesn't necessarily have to return a value.
append()Mutates <List> by adding <Element> to the end of the list.
argumentsThe inputs to a procedure.
attributesCharacteristics of an object which may be used to reference other objects or save object state information.
<name> = <expression>This is an assignment statement. A variable is named and also assigned a value or expression. If multiple values are assigned to the same named variable, the last assignment is the one used.
base caseAn expression that has a value and is not defined in terms of some other thing we are defining. This breaks the chain of recursion.
BooleanA value that is either True or False
circular definitionA definition that doesn't give us answers because it never finishes. It is stuck in a loop with each reference pointing to another reference. It has no base case.
classDescribes what an object will be, but it isn't the object itself. This is a blueprint for that object.
class <ClassName>How to define a class in Python
class diagram (UML)Shows the system classes and relationships between them. Diagrams the primary attributes and primary operations for each class.
code modularityDividing software or an application into smaller modules. This provides prewritten code which saves resources and provides greater manageability.
comparison operatorUsed to make a comparison between two values.
compiled languageYou write source code, and compiler goes through that code and creates a separate file containing the machine code. That new file is used to run the program. Can be faster than interpreted code. Must be compiled for a specific platform.
compilerA program that takes source code and converts it to machine code by producing a separate file.
concatenateTo connect or link in a series or chain.
constructorA special type of function used to create a class or object.
dictionaryProvides a mapping between keys, which can be values of any immutable type, and values, which can be any value. Because this is implemented using a hash table, the time to lookup a value does not increase (significantly) even when the number of keys increases.
if <condition> else:Used in to provide a two-way decision. If the initial condition is true the first block of code will execute. If the initial condition is false, the second block of code following the else clause will execute.
encapsulationSurrounding something to both keep the contents together and also to protect those contents.
expressionAny Python construct that has a value
for <Name> in <Collection>Executes a block once for each element of a collection.
frameworkHuge amounts of code already written, already tested, ready for you to link to and use within your programs. Also called libraries.
grammarIn a programming language like Python, these are the rules that the code must adhere to. When not followed, the interpreter will return a Syntax Error message. This means that the structure of the code is inconsistent with the rules of the programming language. Proper formatting for an expression would be: Expression -> Expression Operator Expression
if <condition>Controls what code executes based on the result of a test expression. If the condition is true the code executes. If it is false it does not execute.
immutableNot able to change in form or nature
index()used to find elements in a list. Outputs the position of the first occurrence of an element matching <Value> in <List>. If <Value> is not found in <List>, produces an error.
indexingTo select sub-sequences. Positions are numbered starting with 0.
inheritanceA form of code reuse. We can create a new class, but instead of writing it from scratch, we can base it on an existing class.
inputData that is passed into a procedure
instantiationCreating instances of a class, or creating an object from a class. Any number of instances may be created from a class.
integerA whole number (not a fraction) that can be positive, negative, or zero
interpreted languageYou write source code and that file is used to run the program. When you run that file an interpreter is used to process the source code when it is needed. Can run on any platform and is easier to test. User must have the interpreter to run the program.
interpreterA program that takes source code and translates it to machine code when that code is needed.
invokeTo activate, usually references the calling of a function in a program.
len()Outputs the number of characters in a string
libraryHuge amounts of code already written, already tested, ready for you to link to and use within your programs. Also called frameworks.
listA mutable collection of objects. The elements in a list can be of any type, including other lists.
logical operatorsThe AND and OR operators. The important property they have which is different from other operators is that the second operand expression is evaluated only when necessary.
loopProvide a way to evaluate the same block of code an arbitrary number of times
machine codeCode that the computer actually understands. Written as numerical operations, works on the level of the CPU, too tedious for writing directly.
mutationChange or cause to change in form or nature
objectSomething self-contained, has an identity separate from other objects. Has its own attributes and behaviors.
operandThe inputs to a procedure.
operatorconstructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions. Examples: arithmetic (addition with +, comparison with >) and logical operations (such as AND or &&)
parametersThe inputs to a procedure. There can be any number of parameters (including none).
polymorphismMeans many forms. It lets us automatically do the correct behavior even if what we're working with could take one of many different forms.
pop()Mutates a list by removing its last element. Outputs the value of that element.
precedenceThe order of operations. A rule used to clarify which procedures should be performed first in a given mathematical expression.
procedureTakes in inputs, does some processing, and produces outputs. This differs from an algorithm, because the processing simply has to execute a set of commands and doesn't necessarily have to return a value.
programmingA series of instructions telling the computer to do something. It's breaking apart a more complex idea, a more complex task, into its smallest individual instructions and then using a programming language to write those instructions.
recursive definitionA definition that has one or more base cases and thus provides an answer.
requirements (UML)What must the program do? What else needs to be considered (legal details, performance, support, security, etc).
scenarios (UML)In a use case this is a goal that an actor can accomplish in a single encounter
sequence diagramDoes not describe the entire system just one particular interaction between a few objects in one scenario. A diagram that shows how operations are done.
slicingObtaining a subset of data from a string, array, or list. You may have also heard this called string extraction. In Python you would do this: <String>[<Start Number>:<Stop Number>] = <String>
source codeCode written in a specific language like Java, C++, Ruby, or Python. This code would be converted to machine code at or before running.
statementsIn programming languages, these are like sentences in English. They use words, numbers, and punctuation to express one thought.
stringSequence of characters surrounded by quotes
subprogramA section of a computer program that is stored only once but can be used when required at several different points in the program, thus saving space. Also called a procedure or function.
two-way decisionA statement that can have two outcomes. An example would be an if/else statement.
UMLUnified Modeling Language. This is a graphical notation specifically for drawing diagrams of an object-oriented system. Utilizes text and graphic documents to enhance the analysis and design of software projects by allowing more cohesive relationships between objects.
use caseA non-technical written description of how a user accomplishes a goal. This is not a diagram. This description requires three things: a title that describes the goal we're looking for, the person who wants that goal, and the steps needed to accomplish the goal.
use case diagramCan be used to describe the functionality of a system in a horizontal way. Details the actors, the system itself, the services that the system knows how to perform, and the lines that represent relationships between these elements. The reason it exists is so we can get an overview of these and see how they interact all in context.
validatorA program or service that checks for syntax errors prior to execution
variableA storage location paired with an associated name or reference. The assigned name is used to reference the data.
while <condition>Continues to execute a block of code as long as a test expression is True.
worst case executionThe time it takes for the algorithm to run where the input for a given size takes the longest to run. When analyzing programs, this is the most important case.
object-oriented programmingA programming language model organized around objects rather than "actions" and data rather than logic. Now each object contains its own data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.
interpreted programmingA programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
functionIn programming, this is a named section of a program that performs a specific task. It only executes when invoked. Is able to both take inputs and provide outputs.
return <value>Specifies the value to be returned by a function back to its function call
def <Name>(<Parameters>)Defines a function in Python.
terminalA value that cannot be broken down further. Once you get to a terminal there is nothing else you can replace it with. In programming grammar, these never appear on the left side of a rule.
non-terminalA value that can be reduced further by the grammar rules until it is reduced to a terminal value.
benchmarkA known value of performance that can be compared against at a future time and under a specific load.
user storySimilar to a use case, in that it describes a single scenario, but very short in length. Typically written as 1 or 2 sentences.
iterateto say or do again


Question Answer
true AND true
true AND false
false AND true
false AND false
true OR true
true OR false
false OR true
false OR false
(false AND true) OR (true OR false)
(false AND false) OR (true OR true)
(false AND true) AND (true OR false)
(false AND false) AND (true OR true)
true OR not true
not (false AND true) AND (not true OR false)

Which of these languages is object-oriented

Question Answer

What are each of these programming languages best used for

Question Answer