Buddhism Vocab Exam 1

nelejofo's version from 2016-02-10 22:50

Section 1

Question Answer
Afflictive Emotionsmental factors that influence thoughts and actions and produce suffering
Determination to be freethe deeply felt wish to achieve liberation from cyclic existence
Habitual tendencieshabitual patterns of thought, speech, or action created by one's attitudes and deeds in past lives
Mindstream"Continuity". Stream of being, mind, continuum, being. Denotes the aspect of an individual that continues from one moment to the next, and from one lifetime to the next.
Obscurationsfactors that veil one's buddha nature
Profound insightThe perception, through wisdom, of the true nature of things
Sustained calmThe basis of all concentrations, a calm, undistracted state of unwavering concentration
Tainted (action)An action performed with the three concepts of subject, object, and action, and therefore tainted by afflictive emotions, so that it results in cyclic existence.

Section 2

Question Answer
ArhatArhat "one who has vanquished the enemy." A practitioner of the Basic Vehicle who has attained the cessation of suffering (nirvana) but not the Perfect Buddhahood of the Great Vehicle
Boddhisattvaa follower of the Great Vehicle whose aim is enlightenment for all beings
DemonDemon. in the context of Buddhist meditation and practice, a demon is any factor, on the physical or mental plane, that obstructs enlightenment
GodsGods. a class of beings who, as a result of accumulating positive actions in previous lives, experience immense happiness and comfort, and are therefore considered by non-Buddhists as the ideal state to which they should aspire
Intermediate ordineean intermediate ordination between lay followers who take the four basic vows and fully ordained monks and nuns. although this level of ordination may serve as a novitiate until the ordinee is ready or old enough to take full ordination, it is incorrect to refer t shramaneras as novices because some shramaneras remain so all their lives without passing to higher ordination.
Marademon, the tempter in general, that which makes obstacles to spiritual practice and enlightenment
Tathagata"One who has gone to thusness", a Buddha, one who has reached or realized thusness, the absolute nature.

Section 3

Question Answer
Manjushri"Gentle and Glorious." the Bodhisattva who embodies the Buddhas' knowledge and wisdom
NagarjunaThe great 1st-2nd century Indian master and father of the profound view tradition (Madhyamika or Middle-Way philosophical system)
ShakyamuniSiddartha Guatama, the Buddha. (The seventh of the thousand Buddhas in this Fortunate Kalpa.) The Buddha of our time, who lived around the 5th century BC
Shantideva7th century Indian poet and "mahasiddha" (accomplished being), author of the famous poem of bodhichitta, "The way of the Bodhisattva"

Section 4

Question Answer
Absolute Body"Dharma body." the emptiness aspect of Buddhahood; truth, absolute dimension
Body of manifestationthe aspect of Buddhahood that manifests out of compassion to help ordinary beings
Body of perfect enjoymentthe spontaneously luminous aspect of Buddhahood, only perceptible to highly realized beings
Cyclic existence"wheel." the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth in which beings suffer as a result of their actions and afflictive emotions
Lower realmsthe hells and hungry spirit and animal realms

Section 5

Question Answer
Enlightmentpurification of all obscurations and realization of all qualities
Liberation1) freedom from samsara, either as an Arhat or as a Buddha 2) a practice performed by a fully realized being in order to liberate the consciousness of a malignant being into a Buddhafield
Nirvana"beyond suffering" or "the transcendence of misery". The goal of Buddhism and the opposite of samsara (cyclic existence).
primal wisdomThe knowledge that has always been present since the beginning, awareness, clarity-emptiness, naturally dwelling in all beings.
Thathagatagarbha"essence of the Tathagatas". A synonym of the Buddha-nature present in every single sentient being.
ThusnessThe absolute nature of things, emptiness, the absolute space free from elaboration.

Section 6

Question Answer
DualisticDualistic. "grasping at two." the concept of "I" and "other" of an apprehending subject and an apprehended object
Emptinessthe absence of true existence (in the sense of any permanent, independent, and single entity) in all phenomena
Eternalismthe belief in an eternally existing entity, such as a soul. considered an extreme philosophical tendency

Section 7

Question Answer
Accumulationsthe accumulation of merit and of wisdom
Deeds"actions or past deeds" the force created by a positive or negative action which is then stored in an individual's stream of being and persists until it is experiences as pleasure or pain (usually in another life), after which the deed is said to be exhausted
The law of cause and effect"action, cause, result." in the context of the Buddhist teachings, the process by which every action inevitably produces a corresponding effect, usually in a subsequent lifetime
MeritThe first of two accumulations. Used loosely to translate Tibetan terms for "virtue", "positive action", and "sources of good for the future".
Twofold GoalOne's own goal, benefit, or welfare and that of others. Often understood in the ultimate sense of the goal for oneself being achieving the realization of emptiness, the absolute body, and the goal for others by compassion manifesting as the form body.

Section 8

Question Answer
Cicumambulationan act of veneration that consists of walking clockwise, concentratedly and with awareness, around a sacred object e.g., a temple, a stupa, or sacred mountain, or the residence, and even the person of a spiritual master
Diamond posturemeditation posture with the legs crossed and the feet resting on the thighs
Parting"splitting" or "laying aside". Often translated as "confession". Openly and remorsefully acknowledging one's faults and misdeeds, and resolving not to repeat them.
root downfallThe breaking of a vow. If the vow is kept, it is the root that gives rise to all the excellent qualities of the path and result. If it is not kept, it becomes the cause of lower realms and the root of suffering, and one falls further and further down in subsequent lives.
transcendent perfectionsA term used to describe the practice of a Bodhisattva, combining skillful means and wisdom, the compassionate motivation of attaining enlightenment for the sake of all beings, and the view of emptiness.

Section 9

Question Answer
StupaSupport of offering". The most typical Buddhist monument, which has a wide square base, a rounded midsection, and a tall conical upper section topped by a sun and moon. Also a symbolic representation of the Buddha's mind. Frequently they contain relics of enlightened beings, and range in size from tiny to ginormous.
SutraA scripture containing the teachings of the Buddha, or the one of the three baskets that deals with meditation.
TreatiseA commentary on the Buddha's teachings. Doesn't necessarily apply to a commentary on one teaching, but includes works by Indian and Tibetan masters that provide more condensed or accessible expositions of particular subjects.
Wheel of DharmaThe symbol of the Buddha's teaching. To turn the wheel means to teach the Dharma. Major series of teachings by the Buddha are referred to as the first, second, and third turnings.
Vinaya"Taming" One of the three baskets, the section of the Buddha's teaching that deals with discipline, and in particular with the vows of monastic ordination.

Section 10

Question Answer
Buddhaone who has dispelled the darkness of the two obscurations and developed the two kinds of omniscience (knowing the nature of phenomena and knowing the multiplicity of phenomena)
Dharmathe Buddha's doctrine; the teachings transmitted in the scriptures and the qualities of realization attained through their practice
SanghaThe community of Buddhist practitioners. May refer to "sublime beings", the monastic community, or the disciples of a particular teacher.

Section 11

Question Answer
Basic vehicle"lesser vehicle." the vehicle of the Listeners and Solitary Realizers that leads to the state of Arhat
Lesser VehicleLesser Vehicle. same as basic vehicle (the vehicle of the Listeners and Solitary Realizers that leads to the state of Arhat)
Great Vehiclethe vehicle of the Bodhisattvas, referred to as great because it aims at full Buddhahood for the sake of all beings

Section 12

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