Arhat "one who has vanquished the enemy." A practitioner of the Basic Vehicle who has attained the cessation of suffering (nirvana) but not the Perfect Buddhahood of the Great Vehicle
a follower of the Great Vehicle whose aim is enlightenment for all beings
Demon. in the context of Buddhist meditation and practice, a demon is any factor, on the physical or mental plane, that obstructs enlightenment
Gods. a class of beings who, as a result of accumulating positive actions in previous lives, experience immense happiness and comfort, and are therefore considered by non-Buddhists as the ideal state to which they should aspire
an intermediate ordination between lay followers who take the four basic vows and fully ordained monks and nuns. although this level of ordination may serve as a novitiate until the ordinee is ready or old enough to take full ordination, it is incorrect to refer t shramaneras as novices because some shramaneras remain so all their lives without passing to higher ordination.
demon, the tempter in general, that which makes obstacles to spiritual practice and enlightenment
"One who has gone to thusness", a Buddha, one who has reached or realized thusness, the absolute nature.
"actions or past deeds" the force created by a positive or negative action which is then stored in an individual's stream of being and persists until it is experiences as pleasure or pain (usually in another life), after which the deed is said to be exhausted
The law of cause and effect
"action, cause, result." in the context of the Buddhist teachings, the process by which every action inevitably produces a corresponding effect, usually in a subsequent lifetime
The first of two accumulations. Used loosely to translate Tibetan terms for "virtue", "positive action", and "sources of good for the future".
One's own goal, benefit, or welfare and that of others. Often understood in the ultimate sense of the goal for oneself being achieving the realization of emptiness, the absolute body, and the goal for others by compassion manifesting as the form body.
an act of veneration that consists of walking clockwise, concentratedly and with awareness, around a sacred object e.g., a temple, a stupa, or sacred mountain, or the residence, and even the person of a spiritual master
meditation posture with the legs crossed and the feet resting on the thighs
"splitting" or "laying aside". Often translated as "confession". Openly and remorsefully acknowledging one's faults and misdeeds, and resolving not to repeat them.
The breaking of a vow. If the vow is kept, it is the root that gives rise to all the excellent qualities of the path and result. If it is not kept, it becomes the cause of lower realms and the root of suffering, and one falls further and further down in subsequent lives.
A term used to describe the practice of a Bodhisattva, combining skillful means and wisdom, the compassionate motivation of attaining enlightenment for the sake of all beings, and the view of emptiness.
Support of offering". The most typical Buddhist monument, which has a wide square base, a rounded midsection, and a tall conical upper section topped by a sun and moon. Also a symbolic representation of the Buddha's mind. Frequently they contain relics of enlightened beings, and range in size from tiny to ginormous.
A scripture containing the teachings of the Buddha, or the one of the three baskets that deals with meditation.
A commentary on the Buddha's teachings. Doesn't necessarily apply to a commentary on one teaching, but includes works by Indian and Tibetan masters that provide more condensed or accessible expositions of particular subjects.
Wheel of Dharma
The symbol of the Buddha's teaching. To turn the wheel means to teach the Dharma. Major series of teachings by the Buddha are referred to as the first, second, and third turnings.
"Taming" One of the three baskets, the section of the Buddha's teaching that deals with discipline, and in particular with the vows of monastic ordination.