British Society (1951-64)

mcleishy's version from 2015-04-19 09:36


Question Answer
In 1951 what did young men have to spend 2 years doing?National Service
What perpetuated traditional attitudes towards class in 1951?Film and Radio
Why did birth rates being to run consistently ahead of death rates?Medical treatment under the Welfare State, and standards of nutrition and hygiene
Where was there a continuing flow of immigration from?The Irish Republic
Starting in 1948, how many immigrants arrived from the West Indies and other parts of the New Commonwealth? 250 000
In the 1950's inward migration was 676 000, what was outward migration?1.32 million
In the 1960's inward migration was 1.25 million, what was outward migration? 1.92 million
Which country was keen to attract new citizens, offering jobs and houses?Australia
In this period, had urbanisation begun to threaten rural life?No
What was run-down and badly needed modernising? Britain's Infrastructure
Pre-war slums had to be cleared, but which new towns were built on green-field sites?Harlow in Essex, and Kirkby on Merseyside
What affect did population movement have upon inner cities? Established traditional communities were broken up, and centres found themselves separated from the suburbs by a belt of neglect
In 1948 500 000 cars were being produced, what was this by 1965?1.7 million
When did construction of the M1 begin? 1958
Between 1957 and 1963, how many miles of new or upgraded road were completed?1200
When was British Railways nationalised, and why?1948, and in a vein struggle to modernise the railway.
In 1963 the Beeching Report led to the axeing of hundreds of Branch Lines, and thousands of railway stations because cars were a cheaper alternative, how much of the rail-network did it recommend the closure of?30%
Was immigration significant due to the size of the issue, or the public concern?The Public Concern
By 1958, of the 210 000 Commonwealth immigrants who had settled in Britain, how many were male?75%
Between 1951 and 1960, how many immigrants came from India and Pakistan?72 000
Which discredit leader of British fascism tried to exploit ethnic tensions by printing off racist leaflets on behalf of his 'Union movement'?Oswald Moseley
Why did the authorities regard inward immigration as economically desirable?They filled up important low-wage jobs
The authorities thought ethnic tensions would ease over time, but what altered that perception? Riots such as Notting Hill in London - August 1958
What 1962 Act limited immigration through the introduction of a system of work permits?Commonwealth Immigrants Act
Labour opposed the 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act, but did the repeal it after the 1964 election? No
Between 1951 and 1955, what happened to the amount of criminal offences?It Decreased
Between 1955 and 1965 what happened to the amount of criminal offences?They more than doubled
What were two prominent examples if the rise in crime and disorder?'Mods and Rockers' and the Kray Twins
Reggie and Ronnie Kray had been jailed for deserting National Service duty, and developed a reputation for extreme violence, but what did their crime empire consist of?Clubs and 'Property Development'
The Krays built up an outwardly respectable image, which celebrities did they associate with?Diana Dors and Barbara Windsor
Other than the 'Mods' and 'Rockers', what new crime phenomenon emerged in the early 1960's?Football Hooliganism
What was the image of the Rockers?They rode heavy motorcycles, wore leather, and listened to rock and roll
What was the image of the Mods?The rode scooters, wore smart suits, and preferred 'sophisticated' pop music
In May 1964, and which south coast holiday resorts, did organised rioting between Mods and Rockers take place?Clacton, Margate, and Brighton
How long did the fighting in Brighton last for?2 Days
What was the public reaction to the events at Brighton?A Moral Panic
What exacerbated the perception of events at Brighton?Exaggeration by the media
Why were people confused by violence amongst the youth?It occurred at a time of affluence and personal prosperity, and against the background of National Service
What did the 1944 Education Act aim to produce?A 'tripartite system'
The 'Eleven Plus' intended what percentage of children to go to a grammar school, and what percentage to go to a Secondary Modern?60% and 30%
Why did the 'tripartite system' never have it's intended affects?Only a handful of technical schools were established, and Secondary Modern's were a disaster
Why was the eleven-plus a hotly debated issue for the middle-class?It was seen as a waste of talent, and place immense psychological strain upon pupils
Which Labour Politician began working on plans for Comprehensive Schools?Anthony Crossland
In 1965, what did Crossland issue, ordering local authorities to begin planning for a switch to the Comprehensive system? Circular 10/65
Which Education Secretary from 1962 to 1964 began to consider new initiatives to get away from the eleven-plus, drawing on knowledge fro Sweden and the United States? Edward Boyle
The 1962 Robbins Report led to the expansion of higher education; which new universities were built?Lancaster, Warwick, and York
In the early 1960's, what was Comprehensive education perceived as? Modern and Progressive, likely to bring equality
In 1964, was education largely a social or political issue?Social, it did not become a political issue until later.
Which local authority set up middle schools for the 9 to 13 age group, avoiding the eleven-plus altogether? Leicestershire
Why the 1956 Suez Crisis lead to a decline in deference?It exposed blatant lying a manipulation by the government
What was the rise of the CND in 1958 symbolic of? A growing tendency to challenge authority
What had left-wingers in the Atlee government wish to abolish?Private Schools and the House of Lords
What happened in the early 1960's, symbolising the dramatic loss of deference towards authority? The 'Satire Boom'
What happened in the Profumo Affair? John Profumo, the Defence Secretary, slept with Christine Keeler who was also sleeping with a Soviet Spy called Ivanov. He lied to Parliament and the Prime-Minister before resigning in disgrace?
What did the Profumo affair symbolize?The Press became less deferential and more intrusive.
What provided the occasion for an establishment spectacular?The funeral of Winston Churchill in 1965
In 1951 there were 26.2 million Cinema attendances per week, what was this in 1964?6.6 Million
Which 1962 novel by Anthony Burgess portrayed violence in new society?A Clockwork Orange
Which 1960 film explored the alienation of young working-class males?Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
Which 1959 crime thriller explored racial tensions, and contained a then daring portrayal of sex and violence?Sapphire
Which sexually explicit book published by Penguin in 1962 resulted in a high-profile court case under the Obscenity Act?Lady Chatterley's Lover
From when did Private Eye begin to grow in popularity?1961
Who led the middle-class backlash against 'immorality' and 'depravity'?Mary Whitehouse

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