Britain, Europe, and the World (1951-64)

mcleishy's version from 2015-04-19 09:37


Question Answer
When was independence granted to India and Pakistan? 1947
In 1947 the British Ambassador in Washington had to tell American that Britain faced bankruptcy, and must withdraw from military commitments where?Greece, Turkey, and Palestine
What speech did Harold Macmillan give in 1960, showing that Britain may be beginning to come to terms with it's position in the new world?'Winds of Change'
In the 1950's where did British forces have to fight against national independence movements? Malaya, Kenya, and Cyprus
Which other countries had to combat revolts in their colonies?France, Belgium, and Portugal
Who was the name of the Kenyan rebellion in 1952?The Mau-Mau
In 1952 - before Suez - did independence for countries such as Kenya appear realistic?It was unthinkable
When was the Suez Canal bought by Britain?1875
The Suez Canal was vital for connections to Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, but what percentage of Europe's oil imports passed through the canal?80%
When did Colonel Nasser nationalise the Suez Canal Company? July 1956
Eden considered himself a master of foreign policy, what were his thoughts on appeasement in the 1930's?He fiercely opposed it
How did Eden perceive Colonel Nasser?'an evil dictator who could not be allowed to get away with unprovoked agression'
Which countries encouraged Eden's natural instinct to use force against Nasser?France and Isreal
Where was a top-secret meeting, in which it was decided that Israeli forces would invade Egypt before France and Britain intervened, held? Sevres in France
Israel invaded Egypt on October 29, when did France and Britain follow?A day later
What did the Joint Intelligence Committee warn Eden of before he intervened in Suez? The United States might take a negative view of military intervention
Why did some people think America wouldn't respond negatively to Suez?There was evidence that John Foster Dulles, head of the American State Department, would be willing to accept British seizure of the canal if it were done quickly?
What did American pressure, in response to Suez, plunge Britain into?A Serious Financial Crisis
In 1957, what became the first African colony to gain independence? Ghana
Other than Ghana, which countries gained independence between 1958 and 1963?Malaya, West Indies Federation, Nigeria, Cyprus, Tanganyika, and Sierra Leone
Where was the 'Winds of Change' speech made, and what did the audience consist of?Cape Town in South Africa, and white supporters of Apartheid
British decolonisation was completed more swiftly, and with less violence, than which other countries? Belgium and Portugal
What was the name of the plan in 1950, which aimed to integrate French and German industry, promote economic growth, and bind historic enemies?The Schuman Plan
Until which date was there an open door for British EEC entry?1957
Who were the fellow members of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA), formed in 1959?Denmark, Norway, Austria, Portugal, and Switzerland
When did Britain submit an application for EEC membership, and when was it rejected?1961 and 1963
What did Labour politician, Herbert Morrison, say about the EEC common market?"the Durham miners won't wear it, I'm afraid"
When were plans for the EEC first laid out?1955
When did the Treaty of Rome officially launch the EEC?January 1957
Why were the American's keen to see Britain join the EEC?They saw it as a vital link between Europe and the Americans
Which economic structure of the EEC did Britain find it particularly difficult to conform to?the Common Agricultural Policy
During the 1961 EEC negotiations, what was one of the special exemptions Britain tried to negotiate?Trade Partners within the Commonwealth, such as lamb exports from New Zealand
At what point did De Gaulle veto Britain's EEC entry, when negotiations appeared to have reached a successful conclusion?January 1963
With whom did De Gaulle frequently row?Churchill and Roosevelt
When did Britain become a founding member of NATO?1951
Where were substantial contingents of Britain's troops stationed at the beginning of the 1950's?West Germany
What did Britain and the United States closely co-operate over?Nuclear Weapons Development and the Sharing of Intelligence Secrets
Who were the highly placed British Officers who defected to the Soviet Union in 1951, deeply troubling the Americans?Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean
What aspect of America's behaviour did Britain often resent?Pressure to join the EEC
With which American Presidents did Macmillan build a good relationship?Kennedy and Eisenhower
When was Harold Macmillan invited, by America, to join a summit with Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev?1960
When was the Test Ban Treaty signed, which perhaps illustrated that Britain had maintained it's place at the European 'top table'?1963
When did Britain's rocket project, Blue Streak have to be abandoned, and replaced by dependence on the American Polaris submarine weapons system?1960
What did Wilson have to confront when assuming power in 1964?The need for deep cuts in Britain's military commitments
Despite decolonisation being well under way, over which territories were there still settlement issues in 1964?Rhodesia, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, and the Falkland Islands
What study, in 1960, presented to Macmillan's cabinet, showed Britain had no yet accepted all the implications of retreat from empire?The Future Policy Study
What remained difficult to shake off, and may have hindered Britain's EEC entry?Sentimental myths about Britain past, and empire.

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