Brain Areas & Function 2

porschefan1's version from 2017-12-12 00:23

Section 1

Question Answer
Cerebellumthe part of the brain at the back of the skull. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity
CerebrumMost anterior part of the brain. It is responsible for the integration of complex sensory and neural functions and the initiation and coordination of voluntary activity in the body.
EfferentAway from nervous system
Afferenttoward nervous system
interneuronsa neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
neurogliathe connective tissue of the nervous system, consisting of several different types of cell associated with neurons.
astrocytesstar-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord.

Section 2

Question Answer
microgliaAs the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defence in the central nervous system (CNS).
ependymal cellsThese cells line the CSF-filled ventricles in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. These are nervous tissue cells with a ciliated simple columnar form much like that of some mucosal epithelial cells.
oligodendrocyteproduce the myelin sheath insulating neuronal axons
gangliaa nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system, house the cells bodies of afferent nerves and efferent nerves.
acetylcholine an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
norepinephrinesubstance that is released predominantly from the ends of sympathetic nerve fibres and that acts to increase the force of skeletal muscle contraction and the rate and force of contraction of the heart. The actions are vital to the fight-or-flight response, whereby the body prepares to react to or retreat from an acute threat.
epinephrineanother word for adrenaline, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, especially in conditions of stress, increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion.

Section 3

Question Answer
axonnerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
dendritesa short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
neurotransmittersThey transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.
saltatory conductionis the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials.
brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.
diencephalon the region of the embryonic vertebrate neural tube that gives rise to anterior forebrain structures including the thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior portion of the pituitary gland, and pineal gland.
meningesthree layers of protective tissue called the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater that surround the neuraxis

Section 4

Question Answer
membrane depolarizationthe negative internal charge of the cell temporarily becomes more positive (less negative).
membrane hyperpolarizationa change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative. It is the opposite of a depolarization. It inhibits action potentials by increasing the stimulus required to move the membrane potential to the action potential threshold.
polarized membraneseparates the inside of a cell (all cells, not just neurons) from the outside, and all chemicals that get into and out of the cell must go thorough it
resting membrane potential is about -70 mV (mV=millivolt) - this means that the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside. At rest, there are relatively more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron.
axodendritic synapseaxon terminal branch (presynaptic element)
axosomatic synapseaxon terminal branch synapses on a soma (cell body)

Section 5

Question Answer
gray matter tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites.
white matterareas of the central nervous system (CNS) and brain that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts
cerebral cortexthe most highly developed part of the human brain and is responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language.
sulcusa groove or furrow, especially one on the surface of the brain.
gyrusa ridge or fold between two clefts on the cerebral surface in the brain.
fissureis a groove, natural division, deep furrow, elongated cleft, or tear in various parts of the body of the brain
subarachnoid space the interval between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater. It is occupied by delicate connective tissue trabeculae and intercommunicating channels containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Section 6

Question Answer
EEGelectroencephalogram is a test that detects electrical activity in your brain using small, flat metal discs (electrodes) attached to your scalp. Your brain cells communicate via electrical impulses and are active all the time
nociceptorsa sensory receptor for painful stimuli.
stretch reflexa monosynaptic reflex which provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length. When a muscle lengthens, the muscle spindle is stretched and its nerve activity increases.

Section 7

Question Answer
limbic systeminclude the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus. The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences.
choroid plexusplexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
muscle spindlesstretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle
golgi tendon organ is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that senses changes in muscle tension
reticular formationa diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and mediating the overall level of consciousness.
dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve. The dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons (afferent).
ventral root ganglia of spinal cordaka (motor root) of each spinal nerve consists of axons from motor neurons whose cell bodies are found within the gray matter of the spinal cord. A ventral root and a dorsal root unite to form a spinal nerve, which passes outward from the vertebral canal through an intravertebral foramen (bone opening).