Brain and Endocrine System

hayfieldappsych's version from 2015-10-10 02:30

Section 1

Question Answer
biological psychologya branch of psychology concerned with links between biology and behavior
neurona nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
sensory neuronneurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
motor neuronneurons that carry outgoing info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
interneuronsneurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and the motor outputs
dendritethe bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
axonthe extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
myelin sheatha layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
action potentiala neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
thresholdthe level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
synapsethe junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
neurotransmitterschemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
reuptakea neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
endorphins"morphine within"-natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
nervous systemthe body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system (CNS)the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
nervesbundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous systemthe part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
sympathetic nervous systemthe division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous systemthe division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
reflexa simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus
endocrine systemthe body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormoneschemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
adrenal glandsa pair of endocrine glands that just sit above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in time of stress
pituitary glandthe endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

Section 2

Question Answer
lesiontissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
electroencephalogram (EEG)an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
computed tomography (CT) scana series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
positron emission tomography (PET) scana visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Shows brain anatomy
functional MRI (fMRI)a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. Shows brain function
brainstemthe oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. Responsible for automatic survival functions
medullathe base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formationa nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
thalamusthe brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
cerebellumthe "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
limbic systemdoughnut-shaped neural system (hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
amygdalatwo lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
hypothalamusa neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward
cerebral cortexthe intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
glial cellscells in the nervous system that support, nourish and protect neurons
frontal lobesportion of the cerebral cortex lying behind the forehead; involved n speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
parietal lobesportion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
occipital lobesportion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
temporal lobesportion of the cerebral cortex roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
motor cortexan area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
sensory cortexarea at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
association areasareas of the cerebral cortex that aren't involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking
aphasiaimpairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or the Wernicke's are
Broca's areacontrols language expression-an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's areacontrols language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in left temporal lobe
plasticitythe brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
neurogenesisthe formation of new neurons
corpus callosumthe large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
split braina condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly in the corpus callosum) connecting them
consciousnessour awareness of ourselves and our environment
cognitive neurosciencethe interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
dual processingthe principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

Section 3

Question Answer
behavior geneticsthe study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
environmentevery nongenetic influence
chromosomesthreadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)a complex molecule containing genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
genesthe biochemical units of hereditary that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
genomethe complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
identical twinstwins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
fraternal twinstwins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than siblings, but they share a fetal environment
heritabilitythe proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
interactionthe interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another factor
molecular geneticsthe subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
evolutionary psychologythe study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
natural selectionthe principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
mutationa random error in gene replication that leads to a change

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