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BPK 142 MIDTERM NOTES

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diwoyexa's version from 2016-10-27 03:58

week 1

Question Answer
What are the 6 functions of the skeleton?provides a supporting framework for the body - Attachment points for muscles, creating a lever system - Protects vital organs - Blood Cell formation (Red and white blood cells and platelets) - Mineral Storage (Calcium and phosporus).
What are the 4 major building blocks of bone?Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Phosphate, collagen fibers, water
What is bone tissue composed of?Osteocytes: widely separated cells surrounded by matrix. Matrix=25% water, 25% protein and 50% mineral salts.
How many bones are there in the body?206
What are the 5 types of bones?Long bones, Short bones, Flat bones, Irregular bones, Sesamoid bones
What is the structure of the vertebral column?7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae, 4 coccygeal vertebrae - as you get to the bottom the bigger the bones become to support body weight.
What is the function of discs in the spine? They are shock absorbers - Allow slight movement so that the column in more flexible and resilient.
Explain the types of abnormal curves 1.Scoliosis: an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebrae column.2. Kyphosis: "hump back" and exaggerated posterior throacic curve. 3. Lordosis: "sway back" an exaggerated anterior lumbar curve.
Name the 3 types of joints1. Fibrous Joints: immoveable 2. Cartilaginous joint: slightly moveable. 3. Synovial Joints: freely moveable.
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week 2

Question Answer
What is synovial fluid? What are its functions?Synovial fluid is inbetween the joints - lubricates the joints surface so that they slide over each other during joint movement. - It supplies nutrients and removes waste from the cartilage cells.
What are the 3 types of planes?Saggital - Frontal - Transverse
LigamentFribrous connective tissue that connects the bone together.
TendonFibrous connective tissue that joins muscles to bone
BursaSmall sac or cavity that is filled with synovial fluid Located at friction points like joints - Most are located between tendons and bone.
Do the movements related to the body1. Flexion, extension, Abduction, adduction. Rotation – inward (medial) rotation; outward (lateral) rotation, Supination, pronation Elevation, depression, Plantar flexion, dorsiflexion
Spraintwisting or overstretching of the ligament or separating from bone attachment.\n2.
DislocationBone is forcibly displaced.
SubluxationPartial dislocation of joint
BursitisInflamed bursa.
Arthritischronic Joint inflammation
What are the structural limits to flexibility?1. Bony structure of the joint: can’t be changed by a flexibility program. Ligaments. Joint capsules. Muscle–tendon unit: muscle and its fascial sheaths
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week 3

Question Answer
What are Sheldon's Somatotypes? Endomorphy – refers to the relative predominance of soft roundness throughout the body. (2) Mesomorphy – refers to relative predominance of muscle, bone, and connective tissue. (3) Ectomorphy – refers to the relative predominance of linearity and fragility. Each rating is done on a 7–point scale. (Endo–meso–ecto)
What are some of the differences noted in somatotypes?Ethnicity, gender, genetics. Females are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic than males. Both genes and environment are important in determining differences in somatotype components. The heritability’s for mesomorphy (85%) and ectomorphy (65%) are higher than for endomorphy (28%)
Heath–Carter method for somatotypesIt is on a 12–point scale instead of 7.
What is the criticism with somatotypes? The somatotype doesn’t tell you anything about a person’s height, or about body proportionality – trunk length vs. leg length, etc.
What is Anthropometry?Quantitative measures of a selected humans landmarks.
What is the 2 component and 4 component model for body composition?2 component: amount of fat and fat free mass there is in the body. 4 component: measures fat, protein, mineral and water. It breaks the non–fat stuff into more detail.
Why assess body composition?Suitable body composition is important for health.\n–Establish reasonable fatness ranges for athletes in various sports\n–Accurate measures of body composition are needed to develop sound weight reduction programs\n–Knowledge of bone mineral content in women and children is important.\n–Monitor changes in body composition associated with disease.
Essential fat vs. Storage fatEssential: Fat that is required for normal physiological functioning. (Cell membrane, transport of fat soluble vitamins, fat in general). Storage: Fat that is stored in adipose tissue for energy supply purposes.
fat distribution Males Vs. Females.Men - Apple shape associated with higher health risks.\n\nFemale - Pear shape. After menopause it switches to apple shape.\nWomen have 9% more Essential fat due to child bearing.
Adipose TissueIt is an endocrine organ that secretes dozens of peptide and non peptide compounds that trigger change throughout the body. e.g. leptin, adiponectin, inflammatory proteins, grehlin
What are the causes of Obesity Epidemic?1. Too much energy intake exceeds energy expenditure.\n2. decreased physical activity\n3. increased consumption of calories.\n4. Social Environment.\n5. Biology\n6. Viruses?
What are direct and indirect methods of assessing body composition?Direct: chemical analysis of human cadavers. Indirect: non invasive techniques used on living people.
Criticisms of heigh–weight tables (3)1) tables do not consider body composition 2) Most data come from white, middle class US adults age 25–29. Does not represent general North American population 3) No accepted method has been devised to determine frame size.
How do you measure body volume?Underwater weighing \nvolumetry\nair–displacement plethysmography.
Body Mass Index (BMI)Used as an indicator for obesity. weight (kg)/height (m) ^2 Criticism: BMI does not take body composition into account.
Hip to Waist Ratioconsidered to be a better predictor of health related risks than BMI
What are the two types of body composition prediction equations?1) population specific equations: developed from relatively small, homogenous samples. eg. Sloan and Yuhasz 2) Generalized equations: developed from large heterogenous samples. Should be used in caution with special populations.\neg. Jackson and Pollack, Durnin & Womersley, Peterson, Wang
What is the error approximate of skinfold measurments?approx. 3–4%
What are the three fatness indicators used by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal?1) BMI: is subject overweight? 2) Sum of 5 skinfolds: triceps, biceps, subscapular, iliac crest, and medial calf 3) Waist Girth: high visceral adiposity?
What is the O–scale system?Adiposity rating (A–rating) –proportional weight rating (W–rating) –stanine scale
What is Bioelectrical Impedance AnalysisUsed to measure the electrical resistance in the body. Impedance is greater in adipose tissue than bone and muscle. Error= approx 3–5%
Near–Infrared Interactance (NIR)The degree of infrared light absorbed and reflected is related to the composition of tissues. Optical densities are linearly related to subcutaneous and total fat.\n* Biceps are the best site to estimate fat with this method
Other procedures used to estimate body composition1) dual energy X–ray absorptiometry 2) Total body water: hydrometry 3) ultrasound 4) Magnetic resonance imaging 5) computerized tomography 6) total body potassium
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week 4

Question Answer
Relationship between Body composition and agingincreased fat mass, Decreased muscle mass (sarcopenia), decreased bone mass. These changes can be slowed down by regular exercise and proper dietary habits.
GrowthThe progressive development of a living being or part of an organism from its earliest stage to maturity.
What are the stages of Postnatal growth?1) neonatal period: birth–4 wks 2) Infancy: 4 wks–2 yrs - Increased growth, coordination and mental development. 3) Childhood: Infancy–puberty. 4) Adolescence: Chidhood–adulthood. begins around age 9 for girls and 11 in boys.
What are the 3 different growth curves?1) distance curve: Measurement taken at intervals are plotted against time to produce a graph of progress. 2. Velocity curve: increments in growth are plotted against time. 3. Longitudinal data: Growth curve derived from a single individual or repeated measurements of the same group over a period of years. cross–sectional data: several age groups are measure and compared.
Compare the growth rate of boys vs girls.Girls grow up faster than boys.\n–Girls reach 50% of their height at age 1.75–2, enter puberty quicker, and cease growth earlier.\nIn foetal period, girls are 3 weeks ahead of boys in skeletal growth.\n\nPuberty: girls (9–10) boys (10–12)\n\nPeak velocity: girls (11.5) boys (13.5)
What happens to osteoporosis in the elderly. What causes it?Vitamin D is important. –Peak bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and hip are achieved around the age of 20.
What are the changes in body proportions and composition with age? The relationship between one part and another of the growing body is not a consistent one, but changes with age.1. Shape of an infant: Large head compared to body. Lower body is less developed than upper limbs. 2. Changes in shape with growth. 3. Puberty–Males vs females: Changes in reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics, in body shape, and in muscles, fat and bone.
Menarche The onset of menstruation: 11–15 years of age. All girls menstruate when their height velocity is falling.
What are the indices of maturity?1. Radiological (skeletal) age 2. Dental Age: first set of teeth 6 months–2 yrs. Lose teeth 6–13 3. Growth Curves: The timing of the peak height velocity and peak weight velocity are useful maturity indicators. 4. Sexual Age: Secondary sexual characteristics can be a useful method of rating maturational development. 5. Neural Age:
What are the factors influencing growth and maturation? (5)1. Genetic Control 2. Nutrition 3. Secular trends 4. Season and Climate 5. Differences between races
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week 5

Question Answer
What are the components of health related physical fitness?1. Cardio–respiratory endurance–aerobic power 2. Strength 3. Muscular Endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body Composition
What are the objectives to physical fitness testing?1. to assess the status of individuals entering program. 2. to aid in prescribing or limiting activity of certain individuals 3. To evaluate progress. 4. to increase motivation and adherence in exercise program 5. evaluate success in achieving objectives.
What are the characteristics of a good physical test?RAVEN: Reliability: Consistant. Objectivity: The level to which multiple testers agree on scoring Accuracy: a measure of how close a result is to the "true" value. validity: measures what it's suppose to measure. Economy: (1) money costs and *(2) time required and subjects and testers. Norms: Allow a relative rating or classification of the subject's performance in relation to other people.
What are the 3 types of muscles?1. Skeletal muscle – attaches to and moves the skeleton. 2. Smooth muscle – found in the walls of hollow organs and blood vessels. Under involuntary control. 3.cardiac muscle – found in the walls of the heart. Involuntary control.
What are the criteria used to name muscles?1. Shape 2. Action 3. Location 4. Divisions 5. Size relationships 6. Direction of fibers
What are the 3 muscles actions?1. Prime mover: a muscles who's contraction is primarily responsible for a particular movement. 2.Antagonist: muscles that oppose one another during contraction. e.g bicep, tricep. 3.Fixators/stabilizers: Muscles that immobilize a joint or bone so that the prime muscle can work efficiently.
What are the 3 layers of connective tissues1. parimysium 2. endomysium 3. epimysium. Tendons are extensions of connective tissue membranes beyond the end of the muscle.
All–or–none lawIf the cell body of the motor neuron receives a strong enough stimulus, an action potential is generated. This action potential travels along the axon and all its bifurcations to stimulate each and every muscle fiber in that particular motor unit.
Types of motor neuorons Speed of contraction: slow twitch, fast twitch (4x faster). 2. Metabolic characteristics: Slow twitch oxidative (SO) – also called “type I” Fast twitch: oxidative–glycolytic (FOG) – also called “type IIa”. Fast twitch glycolytic (FG) – also called “type IIb”
Endurance athletes have what kind of fibres? Power athletes?Endurance: slow twitch Power: fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers and fast twitch fibers can’t be inter–converted by physical training. However, FOG and FG fibers can be inter–converted by physical training.
What are the reasons males are stronger than women?1. avg male is usually larger. 2. diff body composition: males have more muscle than fat due to testosterone. 3.different body proportions: males broder shoulders, females broader hips. 4. cultural: less emphasis on female strenth. Max strength reached at 20–30
What are the benefits of strength training?slow down muscle loss that happens with age. increase size and strength of muscle fibres––> greater performance. improve physical appearance. improved posture problems. less likely to be strained and injured. improve joints.
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week 6

Question Answer
BIOMECHANICSis the application of mechanical laws to LIVING STRUCTURES, specifically the locomotor system of the human body
MOMENT ARMthe perpendicular distance between axis and opposing force
VOLUMEthe amount of space the body occupies
Pressureforce distributed over given area (P = F/A)
Compressionpressing or squeezing axially through the body
Tensionpulling or stretching force axially through the body
Shearforce directed parallel to a surface
Mechanical stressequals F/A (similar to pressure)
HOW TO LIFT A BOX 1. Don’t be a hero and get help 2. If nobody is there keep feet flat on floor 3. Face in the direction you want to move and avoid twisting 4. Keep box close to your body 5. Get a good grip 6. Bend at the knees and hips 7. Lift using knee and kip exstensor muscles 8. Carry close to your centre of gravity
Centre of gravity defined asDefined as the intersection point between the frontal, sagittal, and median plane
Newtons First lawLaw of inertia – a body will maintain its state of rest or constant velocity unless an external force changes its state
Newtons second lawLaw of acceleration – force equals mass x acceleration
Newtons third lawlaw of reaction – an exerted force on an object will exert an equal and opposite reaction in the direction of the first body
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