jizelufu's version from 2015-12-13 20:43


Question Answer
Boyle's Lawpressure of a gas is inversely proportional to volume
Molecules move from ____ pressure or concentration to ______high, low
inspirationa active process where diaphragm descends and intercostal muscles contract - air molecules move into lungs by following a pressure gradient
expirationpassive process where muscles relax and air flows out of the lungs, however some abdominal muscles can be involved during exercise
regular body temperature37 degrees centigrade
compliancethe amount of volume change in the lungs for a given change in alveolar pressure
Alveolar ventilation equation to determine alveolar volume (V_A)V_A (equals) (V_T x F_R) - (V_D x F_R). translates to, alveolar volume (equals) (tidal volume x breathing frequency) - (volume of dead space x breathing frequency)
categories of pulmonary dysfunctionsobstructive disorders, and restrictive disorders
examples of obstructive disordersnarrowing of the airways such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema
examples of restrictive disordersno problems with airways, but the tissues are damaged and lung expansion is limited. examples are pulmonary fibrosis, pnemonia, tuberculosis.
air intake: via either the nose or the mouth is quickly saturated with water vapor and warmed to body temperature, 37 degrees centigrade, even under conditions when very cold air is inspired


Question Answer
Cardiac outputthe amount of blood pumped by either the left or right ventricle per minute. both chambers have the same cardiac output so the flow of blood is both circuits is equal
stroke volumethe amount of blood pumped in a single beat by either the left or right ventricles
cardiac output equationheart rate times stroke volume
VO2 max equationHR x SV ( a-v O2 diff) - where av- O2 diff is the arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference
____ people have a higher stroke volumeathletic or trained
the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle issystole
the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle isdiastole
end-diastolic volumethe volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of diastole
ejection fractionthe percentage of end-diastolic volume ejected with each contraction
increased blood flow during exercise is caused by 3 thingsincreased blood pressure, dilation of arterioles in working muscles, and constriction of arterioles in gut organs and non-working muscles
Poiseuille's law (resistance to flow equation)(fluid viscosity x tube length)/ radius of the tube ^4
a small change in blood vessel radius will ____ alter blood flowdramatically

the circulatory system

Question Answer
functions of the circulatory systemtransport oxygen, sugar, hormones throughout body, and collect waste materials such as CO2, lactic acid, and urea
pulmonary circuitblood vessels to and from the heart and lungs
systemic circuitblood vessels to and from the heart and body tissues
the direction of blood flow in the heart is controlled byone-way heart valves
the left ventricular walls are much thicker due tothe left ventricle needs to create higher pressure to deliver blood throughout the systemic circuit
heart murmursound the heart makes if a valve is damaged or does not close properly. the noise is from the regurgitation of blood
characteristics of the heart MUSCLEcalled cardiac muscle, and has properties of smooth muscle and skeletal muscle. all muscle fibers in the heart are anatomically interconnected - when one fiber contracts, all of them contract
the pacemaker of the heart is theS-A node
pathway of conduction in the heartSA node - atrial contraction - AV node - AV bundle - left and right bundle branches - purkinjie fibers - simultaneous ventricular contraction
electrocardiogram definitiona device that records the wave of depolarization as it passes across the heart using electrodes
components of a normal ECG wavep wave ( atrial depolarization), QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), T wave (ventricular repolarization)
examples of arrhythmias and how to diagnoselook at heart rate, amplitude, and shape of the ECG wave. examples are atrial (trachycardia) nodal - blockage of node signals, ventricular (premature contraction, tachycarida, or ventricular fibrillation)
the vessels that supply blood to the heart are theleft and right coronary arteries
going from large arteries to capillariesaorta - arteries - arterioles, capilaries
going from large veins to capillariesvena cava - vein - venule - capilaries
purpose of one way valves in veinsveins have low blood pressure, therefore the valves help prevent backflow of blood against the force of gravity - especially in the legs
mechanisms involved in returning blood to the heartpressure difference, skeletal muscle contraction, respiratory pump
composition of blood plasma90% water, 10% solutes
the amount of gas that can be dissolved in a fluid is dependent onpartial pressure of gas above the fluid (barometric pressure times gas concentration), and solubility of the gas (CO2 is 20 times more soluable in water than O2)
besides pressure what other factors impact diffusing capacitythickness of respiratory membrane, number of RBCs and hemoglobin concentration, the surface area of respiratory membrane

maximal aerobic power

Question Answer
VO2 max translates tomaximum oxygen uptake, or maximum oxygen capacity
the 5 determinants of VO2 maxability to ventilate lungs and oxygenate blood, ability of the heart to pump blood, oxygen carrying capacity, ability of muscles to accept large blood supply, and the ability for muscle fibers to extract the oxygen effectively
VO2 max test protocols (3)should exceed 6 minutes, but shorter than 15. incorperate a warm-up period. should be arranged in stages with increasing intensity
criteria for determining of VO2 max has been reachedoxygen consumption ceases to increase linearly with increasing work rate, heart rate is close to predicted 220-age, blood-lactate should be above 8milimoles per liter after exercise, subjective observations
why use a predictive test rather than a VO2 max test?less expensive, safety reasons, can be administered to large groups, less motivation is required from the subject
formula for mechanical efficiency%EFF = work performed(kcal)/energy expended(kcal) x 100%. the answer is usually between 20-25%

nervous control of muscular movement

Question Answer
Divisions of the nervous systemcentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system
4 main parts of the brainforebrain, midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem
peripheral nervous system consists of ____ pairs of cranial nerves, and ____ pairs of spinal nerves12, 31
functions of afferent nervesconvey information from sensory receptors BACK to the CNS
somatic nervous system functioninnervates skeletal muscle
autonomic nervous systeminnervate smooth muscle and glands - sympathetic and parasympathetic
a nerve cell is called aneuron
the long arm of a nerve cell is called an axon
the short projections from the cell body of a nerve cell are thedendrites
the discontenuous lipid sheath surrounding the axon is themyelin sheath
the spaces between the myelin sheath that assist with saltatory conduction arenodes of ranvier
mylenated nerves have ____ conduction speeds than unmylenated nervesfaster
the connnection of an axon to the cell body of another nerve is a synapse
3 functional classes of neuronsafferent, efferent, and interneurons
the spinal cord is enlarged in two regions to innervate the limbs. name them and their location on the spinal cordcervical enlargement - C4 through T1 to innervate the arms, lumbosacral enlargement T11 to L1 to innervate the legs
a network of converging and diverging nerve fibers or blood vessels isthe plexus
gray matter containsnerve cell bodies
white matter containsnerve axons
ventral roots containefferent (motor) nerve fibers to skeletal muscl
dorsal roots containafferent (sensory nerve fibers
spinal gangliona collection of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS
an individual is quaripalegic if the spinal cord is cut above the ____ vertebraeC5
an individual may lose respiratory function and die if their spinal cord is cut above the_____ vertebraeC4
the patient may be a parapalegic ifthe spinal cord is cut below the cervical spine
proprioceptors conduct _____ information to the CNS from ______, ______, _______, and _______sensory, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints
muscle spindlesnerves that wrap around muscle fibers to relay the signals the degree of stretch
tonic stretchconcerned with the final length of the muscle fibers
phasic stretchspindle responds to the velocity of the change in length

motor learning

Question Answer
three classifications of motor skillsbased on precision of movement, based on distinctiveness of beginning and end points of movements, based on stability of the environment
physical therapists usually work on ____ motor skills, while occupational therapists work on ___ motor skillsgross, fine
discrete motor skillclearly defined endpoints such as throwing or catching a ball
continuous motor skillshas arbitrary beginning and end points such as running, swimming, or using a steering wheel
closed skillsthe performance environment is stable and predictable - such as golf, archery
open skillsthe performance environment is constantly changing - basketball, hockey
cognitive stage of skill aquisitionperformer needs to understand what needs to be done, organizes a mental plan of the performance, and responses change frequently in attempt to improve the skill, many errors are made
associative stageperformer moves to this stage when he is able to reproduce a reasonable approximation of the desired movement
autonamous stagemovements are automated and almost instinctual - very little error - professional level, and result of immense practice


Question Answer
ergonomics definitionthe study and application of biology and engineering to the relationship between workers and the environment
an ergonomist usually has education inanatomy, anthropometry, physiology, and biomechanics as well as engineering and management.


Question Answer
two physiological responses to coldincrease in metabolic rate, increase in tissue insulation (shunting blood flow in deeper vessels)
factors affecting responses to coldskinfold thinkness, gender, clothing
hypothermia is a condition characterized from core temperature drops below _____35 celcius
factors associated with hypothermiawet clothes, wind, physical exhaustion, inadequate layers of clothing, low percent body fat, hypoglycemia, alcohol consumtion decreases shivering
how hypothermia kills you (physiology)cold causes oxygen dissociation curve to shift left, less o2 released in tissues, body tissues shift to anaerobic metabolism, hypoxia of heart and brain plus acidocis, shitty heart and brain efficiency, ventricular fibrillation, death
why are many people unaware of frostbite?cold blocks sensory neurons


Question Answer
alveolar volume equalstidal volume - dead space
as snorkel size increases, ______ increasesdead space increases
SCUBA acronymself contained underwater breathing apparatus
embolusany material that obstructs a blood vessel (such as air bubble)
diseases associated with divingair embolism, pneumothorax lung collapse, nitrogen narcosis, the bends, oxygen poisoning, mask squeeze, middle ear squeeze


Question Answer
prevention of altitude illnessstaged ascent, avoid booze, eat a high carb diet, be physically fit, take drugs that combat the effects of hypoxia, stay hydrated, keep in mind that people acclimatize at different rates