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Bovine - Bull BSE & Penis, Prepuce Disease

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sihirlifil's version from 2017-10-06 16:16

Bull BSE

Question Answer
Scrotal circumference highly correlated withPaired testis weight
Paired testis weight correlated toDaily sperm production
Semen quality traits
(weight correlated with SC)
SC is an accurate predictor of?Onset of puberty (more accurate than age or weight!)
How does SC of a bull relate to his half-sib sisters? Offspring?Larger SC = earlier puberty in the heifers
Higher fertility of female offspring
Small testicles generally means?Late maturing, increased seminiferous tubule degeneration, pathological testicular conditions often signaled by small testicles. Yearlings with small SC also ten to not catch up
How does breed play into SC?Different breeds reach puberty at different ages, so selection intensity of SC and age at puberty differes (there’s a minimum standard based on mean for the breed)
When measuring SC for a BSE, SC for age should be…Within 1 std deviation of the mean
___% of bulls should exceed minimum SC83%
What’s a benefit of having SC as a measurement?Highly repeatable between examining veterinarians
Most common semen collection method in beef bullsElectroejaculation
Semen collection method in bull studsArtificial vagina
Last resort for semen collection?Massage when electroejaculation is impossible
Components of semen evaluation (4)Semen density & volume (no longer formal part of BSE)
Gross motility
Individual motility
Sperm morphology
How is semen density & volume rated?VG = creamy >/= 750x10^6/mL
G = milky 400-750x10^6/mL
F = skim milk 250-400x10^6/mL
P = watery <250x10^6/mL
How is gross motility evaluated?Without coverslip, 100X on warm slide
How is gross motility rated?VG = rapid dark swirls
G = slower swirls & eddies
F = no swirls, prominent individual cell motion
P = little or no individual cell motion
Mass motion partially dependent onConcentration
How is individual motility evaluated?Coverslipped specimen on warm slide at 400X
How is individual motility rated?Estimate total % cells in motion and % progressively motile
VG = >/= 70%
G = 50-69&
F = 30-49%
P = <30%
(Canada uses values 10% or higher)
How is sperm morphology examined?Eosin-nigrosin stain examined at 1000X oil immersion
How are sperm abnormalities classified?Primary/Secondary
Major/Minor
Compensable/Non-compensable
Primary abnormality originates where?Testis/spermatogenesis
What are the primary abnormalities?Head (nuclear) shape and nuclear vacuoles
Acrosomal defects
Middlepiece defects
Tail defects due to structural abnormalities
Proximal cytoplasmic droplets
Secondary abnormality originates where?In epididymis or at ejaculation
What are the secondary abnormalities?Detached heads
Kinked tails
Distal cytoplasmic droplets
Major defect =Associated with infertility
Minor defects =Usually “primary” defects
Compensable/Non-compensible is referring to what?If added numbers of sperm can compensate for abnormal
Compensable =If abnormal sperm do nothing in female tract
Non-compensable =If abnormal sperm fertilize oocytes
Tolerable levels of abnormalities:At least 70% of spermatozoa are normal
Head defects less than 15-20%
Acrosome and tail defects less than 25%
When doing a BSE on a bull, he is examined for?Normal tract, breeding abilities, SC, and semen
“Satisfactory” on a BSE =Above threshold for SC, motility, % normal spermatozoa
Possible BSE examination results (4)Satisfactory
Questionable
Decision deferred (e.g. pubertal bulls with poor semen)
Unsatisfactory
BSE examination should include what (anatomically)?Accessory sex glands (ampulla & seminal vesicles palpable)
Scrotum & scrotal contents
Penis & prepuce
Inguinal rings
Eyes
Hooves
Leges
General condition
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Bull: Injuries & Diseases of the Penis/Prepuce

Question Answer
(Be able to draw the prepuce diagram)(Thought we were done with these damn things)
When is prolapse observed without laceration? (3)Abnormal retractor prepuce muscles
Consequence of hemoatoma
Urination (zebu bulls)
How does laceration cause prolapse?Pendulous prepuce gets injured --> edema --> swells prolapsed tissue, preventing retraction --> persistent prolapse re-injured
Nursing care for preputial prolapse:Sling to suspend it & reduce edema
Local & systemic antibiotics
Emollietns
Hydrotherapy
Replace prolapse within sheath
If you choose to replace the prolapse within the sheath, what must you do after?Maintain sling to prevent reprolapse
Close preputial orifice to prevent prolapse
Tube for urination taped/sutured in place
Surgical options for preputial prolapse?Amputation of prolapsed section (<50% success)
Resection (anastomosis) following dissection of damaged portion
Surgical success for preputial prolapse depens on what?Degree of damage and approach
Preputial prolapse surgery is more successful if…Penis can be extended during surgery
Resection (vs amputation)
Done under general anesthesia
What is the frenulum?Remnant ot prepubertal attachment of layers, attaching penis (distal to fornix) to inner lamina covering the distal penis
What does a persistent frenulum look like?Ventral midline of penis remains attached to inner lamina
How to correct persistent frenulum?Cut it surgically
Is persistent frenulum heritable?Some experts say yes. So use only for production of crossbreds
Are bulls with persistent frenulum fertile?Yes
How does acute penile hematoma happen?Excess pressure or bending of penise
Most common location of penile hematomaDistal sigmoid flexure (dorsal aspect)
Penile hematoma: where (anatomy) does the blood fill?Subq space between scrotum & preputial orifice
Diagnosis of penile hematomaBased on CS: swelling on belly wall, purple prolapse of prepuce not associated with laceration, inhibition of breeding
When should surgery be done for penile hematoma?Within 7 days
How is penile hematoma corrected surgically?Remove clot, repair tear in tunica albuginea
Possible sequelae of penile hematomaAbscess formation
Damage to dorsal nerve of the penis
Adhesions between penis & subq layers
Vascular shunts
Which ligament is responsible for deviations of the penis?Apical ligament (dorsal ligament of the penis)
If the apical ligament is too short…S-shaped deviation
If the apical ligament is too long…Ventral (rainbow) deviation
Spiral deviation: seen most often in who? when?Older bulls at ejaculation
How do you correct deviation with fascia lata implants?Apical ligament incised along dorsal midline
Strip of fascia lata harvested and placed between the apical ligament and tunica albuginea
How do you correct deviation by tacking AP to tunica albuginea? When do you do this?For spiral deviation
Cut strip of ligament from lateral edges, use them as suture to tack edge of AP to tunica albuginea, then suture dorsal midline incision (each suture includes deeper bite into tunica albuginea), close internal lamina (skin)
Most common surface neoplasm of the penis:Fibropapilloma
Fibropapilloma caused by?Bovine papillomavirus
Fibropapilloma common in who? spread how?Young bulls housed together, spread may be associated with mounting behavior
How is fibropapilloma usually diagnosed?On BSE
Bleeding from prepuce (phimosis rare)
Fibropapilloma most often located where?Free end of penis (from fornix to glans)
How do fibropapillomas behave?Single or multiple, tend not to invade, mostly resolve after partial excision or without treatment
If you want to remove a fibropapilloma, often requires what?Ligation- area of attachment usually small but has generous blood supply (NOT IF URETHRA INVOLVED)
Local anesthesia for dorsal nerves of the penis (given dorsally under inner lamina)- they are sensory
Large ones may need elliptical incision in skin
Vaccine for papillomavirus?Commercial or autogenous
Why would we want to transplant the preputial orifice laterally and redirect the penis?Create heat detector bull (“sidewinder”)
Create marker bulls by?Lageral deviation of penis & prepuce (translocation)
Epididymectomy
Many other techniques (Excision of a strip of dorsal ligament, penile retraction & fixation, phallectomy, adherence of penis to abdominal wall, fistulation of preputial cavity with closure of preputial orifice, mechanical preputial blocking devices, artificial thrombus in corpus cavernosum penis, vasectomy)
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