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Bovine Accidents Of Gestation

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sihirlifil's version from 2017-09-14 17:21

Pre- & Peri-partum

Question Answer
Mummification = Death and desiccation of a fetus within the uterus without delivery through the cervix
Mummification usually happens at what point?2nd trimester
How does a mummified fetus appear?Fetal fluids resorbed, fetus becomes skeletal
Fetal skin tightly pressed into skeleton
Uterine wall tightly pressed into mummy
Caruncles/placentomes disappear
Fetus compacts into leathery, firm, rat/cat-sized object
A cow with a mummified fetus looks...Comfortable and healthy
External signs of a cow with mummified fetus:Anestrus (no estrus or cycle)
Does not calve on schedule
Possible causes of mummified fetusViral infections that kill the fetus quickly without contamination or inflammation
Anoxia
T/F Mummification requires an open cervixFALSE, requires closed cervix and no bacterial invasion
Anoxia leading to mummification can be fromPlacenta or umbilical cord
Treat mummification byAdministration of PGF2a
After PGF2a administration, how long does it take for the fetus to be expelled?2-3 days
T/F The dry mummy may not pass through the vagina after PGF2aTrue. Manual extraction from the vagina or C-section may be necessary
Do cows return to normal cycle after having a mummy? How does this affect them?Can cycle and be normal reproductively, BUT lose a season/calving/lactation and may be culled for economic reasons
Maceration = Fetus dissolved and decomposed by bacteria with the exception of some bones, and foul-smelling liquified tissue is retained in the uterus
How does maceration happen?Fetus dies before/during abortion, fails to be completely expelled, and bacteria enter through partially open cervix and multiply in the warm body temperature of the dead fetus
How do the uterus and fetus look like with maceration?Wall of uterus becomes thickened
Vaginal discharge gray/red & foul-smelling
Bones may embed in uterine wall, sometimes perforate and cause adhesions
A cow with a macerated fetus looks...Possibly signs of ill health, may be depressed
Diagnosis of maceration?Palpation and ultrasound
Diagnostic signs of macerationUterus feels thick-walled, sometimes bones felt
Minimal fluid fluctuation
Purulent vaginal discharge
T/F A cow with a macerated fetus is not usually treatedTrue
Complications with treating maceration? How can it be done?Time has been lost, questionable fertility
Uterine contents expelled with PGF2a, bones in uterine wall may need surgical extraction
Hydrops = Accumulation of fluid in tissue or body cavity
T/F Like retained placenta, hydrops allantois is not a life-threatening conditionFALSE! Massive volume of fluid develops
85-95% of hydrops cases in cows areHydrops allantois (hydrallantois)
A cow with hydrallantois presents how?Massive abdomen (100-250L extra fluid! Usually 8-15L at term)
Rapid accumulation of fluid in last trimester
200-500lb extra weight
Hydrallantois: added weight and abdominal pressure causes what?Anxiety, recumbency, reduced feed intake, ketosis, prepubic tendon rupture/abdominal herniation
Cause of hydrallantoisBoth uterine and placental origin possible (functional and structural changes in caruncles and in chorio-allantois)
Possibly malnutrition/starvation
What happens inside the uterus with hydrallantois?Modifications of placentome/caruncle size, #, and structure
Adventitious placental growth
Diagnosis of hydrallantois?Palpation and ultrasound
Diagnostic signs of hydrallantoisPlacentomes and fetus not palpable (too much fluid)
Fetus tends to be normal on ultrasound
Shape of abdomen bilaterally round and tense
Treatment of hydrallantoisCulling and salvage recommended :( (complications, abortion, maternal death, are common; uterine pathology in survivors)
Trocarization with gradual drainage + fluid therapy
Induction of parturition if close to term
Bison x domestic cow = High incidence of hydrops
(IVP and cloning)(Hydrops is estimated to occur in 1 in 7,500 pregnancies in the general population of cattle. The incidence is higher in cattle and sheep recipients of IVP embryos, with one study estimating a rate of approximately 1 in 200 in IVP pregnancies in cattle, or 0.05 percent. However, a more recent but smaller study reported 1/28 (four percent) IVP pregnancies resulted in hydrops. Reports of hydrops in SCNT pregnancies are highly variable, and range from 13 to 40 percent. One research center reported that on average 42 percent of SCNT-bearing surrogate cows pregnant at 120 days gestation will experience pregnancy failure, and that 58 percent of these mid- to late-term failures may be attributed to hydrops. This indicates an average hydrops incidence of 24 percent for this laboratory)
Hydrops amnii (hydramnios): volume of fluid less or more than allantois?Much less
Assumption with hydrops anmii and hydrops of the fetus: ___ is abnormal, and its abnormalities are causing the hydropsFetus
Presentation of hydrops amniiPear-shaped abdomen, not tense, developed over several months
Cause of hydrops amnii attributed toAnomalies that affect fetal swallowing
Diagnosis of hydrops amniiPalpation and ultrasound
Diagnostic signs of hydrops amniiPlacenta appears normal
Fetus is palpable
Treatment of hydrops amniiPregnancy often goes to term, calving can be induced
Do cows recover from hydrops amnii? What about the fetus?Cows oftern recover, fertility normal
Fetus tends to be abnormal
Examples of abnormal calves associated with hdrops amniiBulldog calves (esp. Dexter cattle)
Muscle contractor monsters in Red-Danish cattle
Small calves with pituitary hypoplasia in Guernsey cattle
Hydrocephalic calves (e.g. Hereford)
Schisotosmas reflexus
Fetal hydrops aka?Hydrocephalus
Fetal ascites
Fetal anasarca
How does uterine torsion occur?Cows rise from the ground by getting up on their hind legs first
Uterus is suspended in abdomen, allowing heavier pregnant horn to fall over the nonpregnant horn, which stretches the broad ligament over the uterus (now twisted 90-180*)
Broad ligament may be longer and wider in cows that have previously calved (more likely in pluriparous)
Where is the broad ligament attached?inside (lesser) curvature of the uterus
Presentation of uterine torsionAdvanced pregnancy or early part of calving
Pain, anorexic, constricted blood vessels
Rumen stasis, constipation, rapid pulse & respiration
Diagnosis of uterine torsionVaginal exam of twisted cranial section
Palpation per rectum
Vaginal exam of uterine torsion shows what?Cervix open (if calving), orientation of calf
Fetus may be dorso-pubic
Palpation per rectum for uterine torsion: what do you feel?Broad ligament stretched over torsion
Pregnant horn falls over nonpregnant horn. Right-horn pregnancies will create torsions to the left (counter-clockwise)
Treatment of uterine torsionManual detorsion during parturition (if cervix open, can attempt to swing calf and uterus back into place)
Rolling the cow
C-section
How do you roll a cow?Cast the cow and place her on the side to which the uterus is torsed. Place a plank over the abdomen above the uterus, helper stands on the plank, cow is rotated to her opposite side (legs going up and over)
The idea is to rotate the cow while keeping the uterus stationary in the abdomen
T/F Vaginal prolapse is generally associated with pregnancyTrue! Associated with pregnancy, not with calving or post-partum period
Vaginal prolapse usually happens when?During late gestation before calving
Presentation of vaginal prolapseUsually beef breeds, late gestation
Vaginal prolapse associated withObesity, high roughage feeding filling the rumen, straining
Cows kept in hilly pastures lie with their heads pointed uphill (predisposes)
Severity of vaginal prolapse: 1st degreeIntermittent
Severity of vaginal prolapse: 2nd degreeContinuous prolapse of vaginal floor
Severity of vaginal prolapse: 3rd degreeCervix and entire vagina prolapsed
Severity of vaginal prolapse: 4th degree3rd degree + lacerations, adhesions, necrosis, and possible peritonitis
Treatment of vaginal prolapseBuhner method with Buhner needle: purse-string suture of vulva with room to urinate, MUST BE REMOVED FOR CALVING
Prolapse pins constricting vulva
Fix vaginal wall to pelvic wall (suture through sacrosciatic ligament) (Minchev)
Method for fixing vaginal wall to pelvic wall to fix prolapseButton method (disk inside vagina sutured through to a similar disk on the skin side)
May not need to be removed for calving
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