Botany 430

Updated 2008-10-21 17:01

Ascomycota Vocab Words

AscusReproductive structure with long sac usually holding 8 spores.
AscosporesSpores found in ascus, usually 8 but sometimes 4 or more than 8.
YeastVegetative stage of life cycle?
BuddingYeast reproduction where a "parent" yeast cell creates a "child" yeast cell (the child starts small and grows)
FissionWhen a yeast cell splits making two identical copies (both the same size)
AscogoniumThe special hypha from which the fertile hyphae develop to produce asci.
Antheridiumthe male reproductive organ (gametangium) that produces sperm in oogamous sexual reproduction; the mother cell of antherizoids
Trichogynea projection from the female sex organ that receives the male gamete or nuclei before fertilization
Woronin BodySpecialized cell that plugs pore between septae mycelium.
Ascogenous CellThe hyphae, in fungi of the Ascomycota, that grow from the ascogonium after it has fused with the antheridium. The ascogenous hyphae are made up of binucleate cells containing one nucleus derived from the male antheridium and the other from the female ascogonium. This condition is represented as n + n, rather than 2n, as the cells are not true diploid cells. Asci (see ascus) develop from the ascogenous hyphae.
Ascus Mother CellTwo SEPTA develop in such a way that the crozier becomes divided into THREE COMPARTMENTS - the tip and basal compartments are uninucleate; the middle compartment is binucleate and is called the ASCUS MOTHER CELL (since it is destined to become an ascus).
Stalk Cellforms the base for the ascus mother cell which develops into the ascocarp
ConidiumAsexual reproduction that occurs on a stalk called the conidiophore instead of in a sporangium. Conidiospores are haploid copies of the parent cell and can germinate to produce a new mycelium. Monokaryons of many species reproduce asexually with conidium.
Cleistothecium(plectomycetes) Closed ascocarp whos thick outer wall is made up of hulle cells. Usually found by animals because of a strong smell. Spores are dispersed when eaten. ex. truffle
Perithecium(discomycetes) Almost closed with an ostiole at the top which releases spores one by one compared to the apothecium which releases all at once. Found in xylaria and nectria
Apotheciumthe ascocarp is open above like a cup. The fertile layer is free, so that many spores can be dispersed simultaneously. The morel, Morchella, an edible mushroom favored by gourmets, is a mass of apothecia fused together in a single large structure or cap. The genera Helvella and Gyromitra are similar.
AscostromaA cavity formed in stroma where asci and ascospores are born. Does not have an ascocarp wall.
StromaTightly knit mycelium usually holding reproductive structure such as an ascus
AnamorphAsexual reproduction producing conidia
TelomorphThe sexual reproduction (produces ascocarp (cleistothecium?)0
HolomorphAnamorph + Telomorph = Holomorph. Holomorph is the whole fungus including all anamorph and telomorph structures.
Hulle CellsCells found on the outside of the ascus in cleistothecium. Thick wall of them.

Centrum Type

Question Answer
ParaphysesVertical mycelial growth inside the ascus from top to bottom.
PseudoparaphysesVertical mycelial growth starting at the top but not making it all the way to the bottom of the ascus.
PeriphysesSmall mycelial growths near the ostiole or pore of the ascus.
Prototunicate AscusA prototunicate ascus is a thin-walled ascus that releases its spores by deliquescing (liquidation), rather than by rupture.
Unitunicate AscusAscus with one wall.
Bitunicate AscusAscus with an inner (endoascus) and outer (exoascus) wall. The outer wall breaks allowing the inner wall to swell with water and push out to release its spores. Bitunicate asci occur only in pseudothecia and are found only in the classes Dothideomycetes and Chaetothyriomycetes (which were formerly united in the old class Loculoascomycetes).
Endoascusinner wall of bitunicate asci that swells out of exoascus to release spores.
ExoascusOuter wall of bitunicate asci that breaks allowing endoascus to come free and swell with water.
operculate DiscomycetesDiscomycetes with an operculum blocking the pore at the top of the ascus.
OperculumLid of an ascus that opens to release spores.
Inoperculate DiscomycetesInstead of an operculum this group has a small pore stuffed loosely with material that is "blown out" upon maturation to release spores.
Sterile Appendages (of Erysiphales)
Hooked and bulbous base
*Not included/Extra*
Question Answer
How do asci get eight spores?Four sex cells undergo meiosis then each of those four cells split.
Pseudotheciumthis is similar to a perithecium, but the asci are not regularly organised into a hymenium and they are bitunicate, having a double wall which expands when it takes up water and shoots the enclosed spores out suddenly to disperse them. Example species are Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and the horse chestnut disease Guignardia aesculi.

Basidiomycota Vocab Words

Question Answer
Basidiocarpthe multi-cellular structure on which the spore-producing hymenium is borne. Basidiocarps are characteristic of the hymenomycetes; rusts and smuts do not produce such structures.
BasidiumA basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic, spore-producing structure found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. A basidium usually bears four sexual spores called basidiospores; occasionally the number may be two or even eight. In a typical basidium, each basidiospore is borne at the tip of a narrow prong or horn called a sterigma (pl. sterigmata), and is forcibly discharged upon maturity.
BasidiosporesBorn on sterigmata of basidia during sexual reproduction
LamellaGills of mushroom
porous hymeniumHymenium with many small holes that forcibly discharge spores upon maturatin
tooth hymeniumHymenium with small toothlike structures hanging off it which hold spores
clamp connectionsFormation in hypha that maintain the binucleate nature of dikaryon mycelium by doubling back on itself, then the nuclei undergo mitosis.
dolipore septumSeptum whose pores allow plasma and organelles to cross through but will restrict the flow of nuclei.
septal porepore through which plasma and organelles can flow
septal pore cap
stipeStem of mushroom
pileuscap of mushroom
gilled hymeniumHymenium of traditional mushroom gilled when open
generative hyphaehyphae are relatively undifferentiated and can develop reproductive structures. They are typically thin-walled, occasionally developing slightly thickened walls, usually have frequent septa, and may or may not have clamp connections. They may be embedded in mucilage or gelatinized materials.
skeletal hyphaehyphae are of two basic types, the classical form is thick-walled and very long in comparison to the frequently septate generative hyphae, unbranched or rarely branched, with little cell content. They have few septa and lack clamp connections.
binding hyphaehyphae are thick-walled and frequent branched. Often they resemble deer antlers or defoliated trees because of the many tapering branches.
monomiticbasidiocarp consisting of only generative hyphae
dimiticbasidiocarp consisting of generative hyphae and either skeletal or binding hyphae
trimiticbasidiocarp consisting of generative, skeletla and binding hyphae
puffballsComprised of an ostiole, peridium (outer wall) and gleba (inner structure holding spores) puffballs are basidiocarp that need some outside stimulus to initiate forced discharge of spores. Usually an animal, droplet of water, or temperature change is enough.
secotioid mushrooms puffballsPuffballs evolved from secotioid mushrooms. Don't always forcibly discharge spores and some have no ostiole (such as stink horns)
secotioid (sequestrate) fungiWhen a mushroom looses both these functions during evolution it is said to be secotioid 1. Cap does not open to expose hymenium 2. Spores lose the ability to forcibly discharge.
peridiumOuter wall of puffballs containing an inner gleba
glebaThe internal portion of a puffball where spores form.
ostioleSmall opening at the tip of a sporocarp such as a puffball or *****