Body Mechanics and Hygiene (chapter 9)

kylerigonan's version from 2015-12-23 18:21

Chapter 9 (Hygiene and Care of the Patient's Environment)

Question Answer
canthusAngle at the medial and lateral margins of the eyelid (inner and outer corners of the eyes)
cerumenyellowish or brownish waxy secretion produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal; earwax
circumorbitalaround an orbit; often referring to the eye
febrilebody temp above normal
hygienethe science of health and its maintenance; systems of principles for preserving health and preventing disease
labia majortwo large folds of tissue extending from the mons pubis to the perineal floor; lip
labia minorasmaller fold of tissue covered by the labia major; lip
medical asepsisa group of techniques that inhibit the growth and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Sometimes referred to as clean technique
pathogeniccapable of causing disease
perineal carecare given to the genitalia
personal hygieneself-care measures people use to maintain health and prevent disease
syncopetransient loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to therein (fainting).
umbilicuspoint on the abdomen at which the umbilical cord joined the fetus. In most adults it is marked by a depression
vertigothe sensation that the outer world is revolving about oneself or that one is moving in space.
Chinese personal hygiene cultural considerationview tasks associated with clones and touch as offensive.
Viet personal hygiene cultural considerationlikely to feel uneasy during a back rub
East Indian Hindus cultural considerationA daily bath is part of their religious duty. Bathing after a meal is seen as injurious. Hot water may be added to cold water! Dries themselves thoroughly with towel
recommended room temperature68-74 degrees F
Physically active patients and patients with chronic pulmonary problems tend to be more comfortable incooler environment
when perineal care should be performeddaily and after each episode of incontinence
Bariatric beds are available in most facilities to accommodateobese patients
full side rails vs regular side rails on bedfull side rails are considered a restraint in a long-term care setting
If the purpose is to apply heat to the affected area what temperature should the water be110 degrees F
If the purpose is to promote healing or to produce relaxation, what temperature should the water be98-102 degrees F
Cool water tub bath. Temp and use?to relieve tension or lower body temperature. Water should be tepid 98.6 degrees F
Warm water tub bath. Temp and use?reduce muscle tension. 109.4 degrees F
Hot water tub bath. Temp and use?Relieve muscle soreness and muscle spasm. 113-115 degrees F. Not used for patients with neurologic disorders or circulatory impairment b/c of the risk of causing burns
Sitz bath. Temp and use?Cleanses and aids in reducing inflammation of the perineal and anal areas of the patient who has undergone rectal or vaginal surgery or childbirth. Discomfort from hemorrhoids or a fissure is also relieved.
A complete bed bath is forpatients who are totally dependent and require total assistance
A medicated bath likely to include agents such asoatmeal, cornstarch, Burow's solution, and soda bicarbonate (alkaline bath). Reduces tension, relax the patient, and relieve the pruritus cause by certain skin disorders.
An effective back rub should last for3-5 minutes
Back rubs are contraindicated if the patient hasfractures of the ribs or vertebral column, burns, pulmonary embolism, or open wounds
When giving a bath to a pt you should fill the washbasin with ____ full with water _____ degrees F2/3; 110-115 degrees F
Dry pt's nails complete to preventspread of infection. Soaking softens cuticles and loosens debris under nails
Always wash limb ______ away from you to prevent reaching over clean areasfurthest
Normal skin has the follow characteristicsintact without abrasions, warm and moist, localized changes in texture across surface, good turgor (elastic and firm); generally smooth and soft, skin color variations from body part to body part
Approximately _________ million hospitalized patients have pressure ulcers develop each year despite national guidelines2.5
of 2.5 million hospitalized patients who develop pressure ulcers, how many people die of complications60,000
What is the financial cost as a whole of treating patents with pressure ulcers9-11 Billion dollars each year
To encourage acute care facilities to become more aggressive in the prevention of pressure ulcer developmentAs of October 2008, Medicare and Medicaid stopped covering the costs of treatment of pressure ulcers that develop during the patient's hospitalization
What are the two mechanical factors that play a common role in the development of pressure ulcersshearing forces and friction
Patients who are incontinent are at risk of pressure ulcers because ?Continual contact of the skin with urine and feces often causes chemical irritation, which frequently leads to impaired skin integrity
why are obese people at risk for pressure ulcers?fat tissue has less vascularity (blood supply) and resilience, and the added bulk and weight increases the pressure.
why are underweight patients at risk for pressure ulcers?Lack of cushion over the bones and muscles and lack of nutrition to the skin cells.
who is the NPUAPNational Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel
what is a stage 1 pressure ulcerLocalized area of skin, typically over a bony prominence, that is intact with nonblanchable redness.
what is a stage 2 pressure ulcerinvolves partial thickness loss of dermis. Appears as a shallow open ulcer. Intact or open serum-filled blisters
what is a stage 3 pressure ulcerFull thickness tissue loss in which subcutaneous fat is sometimes visible but bone, tendon, and muscles are not exposed. Possible undermining and tunneling.
what is a stage 4 pressure ulcerFull thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, or muscle. Slough or eschar is present on some parts of the wound bed. Includes undermining and tunneling.
What is a unstageable/unclassified pressure ulcerfull thickness tissue loss, a bond base covered by slough and eschar in the wound bed. True depth and stage of the ulcer cannot be determined until the base of wound has been exposed.
what is suspected deep tissue injury (pressure ulcer)The wound appears as localized purple or maroon area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister.
Reposition chair-bound patients everyhour
If chair-bound patients are able to shift their weight, teach them to do so every15 minutes
Electric razors should be used for those patients who have ableeding disorder or who are undergoing anticoagulant therapy (medications that increase the tendency to bleed)
A patient's _____, ______, or ______ are never removed without consent of the patient, except for emergency purposesmustache, beard or sideburns
Catheter care is to be performed _____ daily on all patients with indwelling catheters, unless otherwise ordered by the health care providertwice
Daily catheter care includescleansing of the metal-catheter junction with a mild soap and water and sometimes application of a water-soluble microbicidal ointment (only if ordered)
Cleanse the eye from the _____ to the _____ canthusinner, outer
If the patient has dried exudate that is not removed easily with gentle cleansing then?try placing a damp cotton ball or gauze on the lid margins to loosen secretions
Harsh blowing of the nose may causepressure capable of injuring the tympanic membrane (eardrum), the nasal mucosa, and even sensitive eye structures.
When the patient receives oxygen per nasal cannula or has a nasogastric tube, cleanse the nares every _________ hours with a cotton-tipped applicator moistened with saline solution8; because secretions are more likely to collect and dry around the tube
High-pitched signals associated with consonants _________, _________, _________, _________, _________, _________, and _________ are more difficult to hear clearly as people agef,p t, k, ch, sh and st
Always start at the ___when removing linenhead to the foot
There are ___ ways to make an unoccupied bed2 ways; open and closed. Open = the top liners are fan folded toward the foot of the bed to allow the patient to return to bed more easily. Closed beds are made frequently in long term care
How is the postoperative bed madein a open form. The top sheet and the spread are not mitered or tucked in at the corners.
Characteristics of normal urinerange from pale to straw color. Clear at time of voiding, Yields negative results when tested for protein, glucose, ketone bodies, red blood cells, white blood cells, and bacteria.
Characteristics of normal stoolbrown, soft, formed consistency, resembles the shape of the rectum, contains undigested food, dead bacteria, fat, bile pigment, living cells, intestinal mucosa, and water
Urinary incontinence occurs because?pressure in the bladder too great, because the sphincters are weak, or because neurologic function has bee compromised as a result of illness or injury.
What are the three types of baths for the homebound patientcomplete bed bath, abbreviated bed bath (only parts of the patient's body are washed , and the partial bath (takes place at the sink, tub, or shower with a shower chair)
What hygiene care is performed during "early morning care"basic hygiene to patients getting ready for breakfast, scheduled tests, or early morning surgery. "AM Care" includes offering a bedpan or urinal if the patient is not ambulatory, washing the patient's hands and face. and assisting with oral care
What hygiene care is performed during "Morning care/after-breakfast care"Offer bedpan or urinal to patient's confined to bed, provide a bath or shower; provide oral, foot, nail, and hair care; give a back rub; change the patient's gown or pajamas; change the bed linens; and straighten the patient's bedside unit and room.
What hygiene care is performed during "Afternoon care"washing the hands and face, assisting with oral care, offering a bedpan or urinal, and straightening bed linen
What hygiene care is performed during "Evening care, or hour-before-sleep (HS) care"Offer personal hygienic care that helps a patient relax to promote sleep. Chasing soiled bed linens, gowns, or pajamas; assisting the patient in washing the face, hands, and back; providing oral hygiene; giving a back massage; and offering the bedpan or urinal to non ambulatory patients
Why does a patient with chronic pulmonary disease most likely to request that the room temperature be turned down?Because they have to work harder to get adequate oxygen