Body Mechanics and Hygiene (chapter 8)

kylerigonan's version from 2015-12-22 06:11

Chapter 8 (Body Mechanics and Patient Mobility)

Question Answer
abductionmovement of an extremity away from the midline
adductionmovement of an extremity toward the axis of the body
alignmentrelationship of various body parts to one another. Alignment helps balance and helps coordinate movements smoothly and effectively
base of supportarea on which an object rests; a stance with feet slightly apart
body mechanicsphysiologic study of the muscular actions and the functions of muscles in maintaining the posture of the body
compartment syndromepathologic condition caused by progressive development of arterial compression and reduced blood supply to an extremity. Increased pressure from external devices (casts, bulky dressings) caused decreased blood flow, resulting in ischemic tissue necrosis; most often occurs in the extremities
contracture abnormal, usually permanent condition of a joint characterized by flexion and fixation and caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers
dorsal (supine)lying horizontally on the back
dorsal recumbentsupine position with patient lying on the back, with head, shoulders, and extremities moderately flexed and legs extended
dorsiflexionbending or flexing backward, as in upward bending of the fingers, wrist , foot, or toes
ergonomicsstudy of people's efficiency in their working environment
extensionmovement allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that increases the angle between two adjoining bones
flexionmovement of certain joints that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones
Fowler's positionposture assumed by patient when head of bed is raised 45 to 60 degrees
genupectoralpatient kneels so weight of body is supported by knees and chest (knee-chest position)
lithotomyincision of a duct or organ, especially the bladder, for reveal of a stone
orthopenicpertaining to the posture assumed by the patient sitting up in a bed at a 90-degree angle; patient may also lean forward supported by a pillow or over a bed table
physical disuse syndromestate in which an individual is at risk for deterioration of body systems due to prescribed or unavoidable inactivity
pronationpalm, of the hand turned down
pronelying face down on the abdomen
range of motion (ROM)normal movement that any given joint is capable of making. Any body action involving the muscles, joints, and natural directional movements
semi-Fowler'sThe position a patient assumes while lying in bed; the head of the bed is raised to about 30 degrees, and the foot of the bed is raised slightly
Sims'lying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest; the chest and abdomen are allowed to fall forward
supinationkind of rotation that allows the palm of the hand to turn up
TrendelenburgsA position in which the patient is lying supine with the head lower than the body with body and legs elevated and on an incline.
Where should you support older adults when moving them in bed?Under their joints
_______ and ______ are common signs and symptoms noted in an older adult on bed restweakness and hypotension
Older adults who have many diseases or have undergone prolonged bed rest have greater risk forhypotension with postural change (orthostatic hypotension)
patients who use medications to reduce blood pressure are at greater risk fororthostatic hypotension
ensuring a good body ______ when patient is sitting is a way to prevent joint and muscle stressalignment
Adult patients with osteoporosis, encourage appropriate exercise programs that prevents _____ and reduce _____fractures ; bone loss
You can achieve improved circulation and joint mobility bystretching and by exaggerating normal movements
what is a safe-lift programincorporated the DON and nursing staff to ensure that mechanical lifts were consistently used and that all nurses and UAP were properly trained in the use of the devices
CMScirculation, movement, and sensation
orthostatic hypotensiondrop in systolic blood pressure of 20 mmHg or a decrease of 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure within 3 minutes of standing when moving from lying or sitting to a standing position
immobility can lead to a ______ in venous return or a ______ cardiac output in response to postural changedecrease; decrease
decrease in venous circulationallows blood to pool in lower extremities,leading to a inflammation of vessels and clot formation
spirometryinstrument to measure lung capacity
why is a trochanter roll usedprevents external rotation of legs when patient is in supine position
paresthesiaabnormal sensation
Assessment of neuromuscular statusskin color, skin temp, movement, sensation, pulses, capillary refill, and pain
normal capillary refil<3 seconds ;<5seconds for older people
active assistive ROM vs Passive assistive ROMpassive assertive ROM patient can move the limb partially and then the nurse may assist the patient for the full ROM. Active assistive ROM uses strong arm to exercise the weaker or paralyzed arm.
the total amount of activity required to prevent physical disuse syndrome is only about ____ hours for every 24 hour period2
NIOSHNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's
NIOSH says health care personnel should never attempt to lift more than _________ pounds of a patient's body weight35
What is a wedge pillow used for?also called abductor pillow (triangular pillow made of heavy foam); used to maintain the legs in abduction after total hip replacement surgery
what is a bed board used for?provides additional support to mattress and improves vertebral alignment
What is a hand-wrist splintindividually molded for patient to maintain proper alignment of thumb; slightly adducted in opposition to fingers; maintains wrist in slight dorsiflexion
what is a hand roll used formaintains thumb slightly adducted and in opposition to fingers; maintains fingers in slightly flexed position
what is a sandbag used forprovides support and shape to body contours; immobilizes extremity; maintains specific body alignment
what is a trochanter roll used forprevents external rotation of legs when patient is in supine position; possible to make with a bath blanket
what are foot boots or foot boards used formaintain feet in dorsiflexion, which prevents plantar flexion (foot drop)
A common complication of patients with limited mobility is a thrombus or emboli. Which nursing intervention assists in the prevention of a thrombus?Applying TED stockings
what is TEDthromboembolic deterrent (TED) hose is an anti embolism measure
After the nurse assist the patient with dangling on the side of the bed before ambulation. What nursing intervention should the nurse perform before proceeding with the ambulationassessment of his pulse and respirations
The nurse repositions the patient to her left side, placing a pillow between her legs and another to her back. What is the primary purpose of this intervention?Ensuring the patient's proper body alignment
An older adult patient has been lying in the supine position for 3 hours and tells the nurse that she is too uncomfortable to move right now. what is the best response by the nurseNurse should assess the patient's need for pain medication before helping her change position
A pt has been immobilized for 5 days because of extensive abdominal. When this pt is helped out of bed for the first time, which nsg dx related to safety applies to this pt? 1) Pain 2) impaired skin integrity 3) altered tissue perfusion 4) risk for activity intoleranceRisk for activity intolerance
When using a lift sheet to assist in moving a patient up in bed, what should the nurse ask the patient to do? 1) Bend the knees to assist in moving 2) keep the hands at sides 3) raise the arms above the head 4) maintain a straight body position4) maintain a straight body position
Laying supine is appropriate for patients who arein shock
Lateral position with knee and leg drawn up can be used for procedures, such asgiving an enema.
Medications that are used to reduce blood pressure may causeorthostatic hypotension because of vasodilation or a reduction of fluid volume (diuretics)
Contracting the stomach muscles protectsthe back.
Keeping the patient close preventsstretching or reaching
The patient will be immobilized for an extended period due to extensive injuries. Which intervention will the nurse use to prevent respiratory complicationsEncourage deep-breathing and coughing every hour.
Why must the nurse assess what the patient, who is immobilized in health care facilities, normally does at homein order to design interventions that mimic or compensate for routine activities
A bedboard providesadditional support to the mattress and improves vertebral alignment.
The ROM that can be safely performed on the neck includesflexion, lateral flexion, rotation
shearing? tissue layers become torn and separated. This occurs as the skin surface is pulled one way and the underlying tissues do not move in the same direction or at the same speed.
Sitting with legs crossed increases the risk forthrombophlebitis
Sitting in a slouched position will causemuscle fatigue and bad posture