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BNS Exam 2- Ch7 p1 Asepsis & Infection Control

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icorojo's version from 2018-04-14 22:23

ASEPSIS

Question Answer
Asepsisthe absence of pathogenic microorganism; literally means "without infection"
Microorganism: defined tiny, usually microscopic, entitles capable of carrying on living processes
Microorganisms are naturallypresent on and in human body and in the environment
Microorganisms: many are harmless (nonpathogenic) and in most individuals do not produce disease
Microorganisms: if an individual is highly susceptible to infectionthe nonpathogenic microorganisms could be dangerous
What are the 2 subcategories of asepsis?medical asepsis and surgical asepsis
Medical asepsis: definedinhibits growth and spread of pathogenic microorganisms
Medical asepsisalso known as clean technique and is used in many daily activities, such as hand hygiene and changing PT bed linens
Surgical asepsis: definedtechnique designed to destroy ALL microorganisms and their spores
Surgical asepsisalso known as sterile technique; used in specialized areas such as the OR and invasive procedures like urinary catheter insertion
What is Infection control?this consists of the policies and procedures of a health care facility to minimize the risk of the spread of nonsocomial or community-acquired infections to PT's and other staff members
Who introduced Asepsis to the medical community?Joseph Lister (1827-1912) to reduce morbidity and mortality from infection
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INFECTION

Question Answer
For an infection to developa specific cycle or chain of events must occur
6 elements of chain of infection1.infectious agent 2.reservoir 3.port of exit 4.mode of transmission 5.portal of entry 6.host
1. Infectious agenta pathogen
2. Reservoirwhere the pathogen can grow
3. Portal of exitexit route from the reservoir
4. Mode of transmissionmethod or vehicle of transportation, such as exudes, feces, air droplets, hands, and needles
5. Portal of entryentrance through skin, mucous lining, or mouth
6. Hostanother person or animal that is susceptible to the pathogen
For prevention of the transmission of an infectionthe cycle must be interrupted; medical asepsis is an effective way to disrupt the chain of infection
A pathogens ability to produce disease relies on what?the microorganism strength, the number of microorganisms present, the effectiveness of a person's immune system, and the length of exposure to the microorganisms determine the ability to produce disease
Why must we interrupt the cycle of infection?for prevention of the transmission of an infection
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INFECTIOUS AGENT

Question Answer
Aerobic bacteriagrows only in the presence of oxygen
Anaerobic bacteriagrows only in the absence of oxygen
Bacterial infections: transmissionfrom person to person by direct contact, by inhalation, and by indirect contact with articles contaminated with the pathogen; some via ingestion of contaminated food and drinks
Virusesare the smallest known agents to cause disease
Viral infections areusually self-limiting; they run a given course and recovery usually occurs with the exception of rabies and HIV
Fungiare responsible for some of the most common diseases found in humans
Fungi: many areharmless, but some are responsible for infections
Protozaare single-celled animals that exist everywhere in nature in some form
4 examples of disease caused by Protozamalaria, amebic dysentery, African sleeping sickness, and toxoplasmosis
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RESERVOIR

Question Answer
Reservoirany natural habitat of a microorganism that promotes growth and reproduction
Reservoir needs what to thrive?food and proper atmosphere
Reservoir: exampleshumans, animals, environmental sources; in healthcare setting reservoirs are soiled or wet dressings, hospital equipment such as stethoscopes, bedside tables, and overbed tables
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PORTAL OF EXIT

Question Answer
A microorganism CANNOTcause disease in another host unless it finds a point of escape from the reservoir
Human exit route examplesany body fluids produced from the PT, such as those from gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems; tissue; blood
Hand washing can prevent the spread of microorganisms or cross-contamination
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MODE OF TRANSMISSION

Question Answer
Once the microorganism has exited a reservoirthere are many vehicles on or by which it can travel to the next host
Fomite: definethe vehicle is an inanimate (nonliving) object
Vector: definethe vehicle is a living carrier
Fomite: examplesStethoscope, thermometer, bandage scissors, etc...
Contamination: definea condition of being soiled, stained, touched by, or otherwise exposed to harmful agents, which makes an object potentially unsafe for use
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PORTAL OF ENTRY

Question Answer
The microorganism mustfind a way to enter the susceptible host
When the host's defense mechanisms are reducedthe microorganism has a greater chance to gain entry to the host and produce infection
What is the first line of defense in the human body, against microorganisms?the skin; it should be kept intact, lubricated, and clean
Microorganisms are able to enter into the bloodstream viapunctured skin, open wounds, accidental needle sticks, etc
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HOST

Question Answer
Host: definean organism in which another organism is nourished and harbored
An infection will not developunless a person is susceptible to the strength and numbers of the microorganism
Immunizationshave proved effective in providing additional protection against infectious disease
List who is at risk for impaired immune response to infection•increasing age and extreme youth •stress •fatigue •nutritional status •hereditary factors •disease processes •environmental factors •medical therapy •chemotherapy •radiation •lifestyle •occupation •diagnostic procedure •travel history •trauma
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INFECTIOUS PROCESS

Question Answer
Infections follow a progressive course1.incubation period 2.prodromal stage 3.illness stage 4.convalescence
Incubation periodinterval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms (ex: chickenpox, 2-3 weeks; common cold, 1-2 days; influenza, 1-3 days; mumps, 15-18 days)
Prodromal Stageinterval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms (malaise, low-grade fever, fatigue) to more specific symptoms (During this time, microorganisms grow and multiply, and client may be more capable of spreading disease to others)
Illness Stageinterval when client manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection
ConvalescenceInterval when acute symptoms of infection disappear (Length of recovery depends on severity of infection and client's general state of health; recovery may take several days to months)
Localized infection(ex: a superficial wound infection) proper care helps control its spread and minimizes the illness
Systemic infectionan infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ and has potential to be fatal
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INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

Question Answer
Inflammation isthe body's response to injury or infection at the cellular level
Inflammation: occurrencea protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products, and nutrients to interstitial tissues in the area of an injury
The processneutralizes and eliminates pathogens or necrotic (dead) tissues and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues
Signs of inflammationedema (swelling), rubor (redness), heat, pain or tenderness, and loss of function in the affected body part
Systemic signs of inflammationfever, leukocytosis (increased WBC count), malaise ("blah"; generalized discomfort), anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and lymph node enlargement
The inflammatory response is triggered byphysical agents, chemical agents, or microorganisms
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HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

Question Answer
Nosocomial infection: defineone that is acquired while in a hospital or other health agency
Nosocomial infection: timeframeacquired at least 12 hours after admission
Hospitals harbor microorganismsthat may be highly virulent (exceedingly pathogenic), making it a more likely place to acquire an infection
Exogenous infection(growing outside the body); infection caused by microorganisms from another person
Endogenous infection(growing within the body); infection caused by the PT's own normal microorganisms becoming altered and overgrowing or being transferred from one body site to another
Nosocomial infections are most commonly transmitted bydirect contact between health personnel and PT's or from PT to PT
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